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Acids and Bases

Vocabulary for Chemistry

Dissociation The separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves.
Hydronium ion The H3O+ ion.
Ionization The formation of ions from solute molecules by the action of the solvent; any process that results in the formation of an ion.
Strong electrolyte Any compound of which all or almost all of the dissolved compound exists as ions in aqueous solution.
Weak electrolyte A compound of which a relatively small amount of the dissolved compound exists as ions in an aqueous solution.
pH The negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration of a solution.
pOH The negative of the common logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration of a solution.
Acid base indicator A compound whose color is sensitive to pH.
Titration The controlled addition and measurement of the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react completely with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration.
End point The point in a titration at which an indicator changes color.
Equivalence point The point at which the two solutions used in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts.
Alkaline A solution in which a base has completely dissociated in water to yield aqueous OH- ions.
Arrhenius Acids A chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions, H+, in an aqueous solution.
Arrhenius Base A substance that increases th concentration of hydroxide ions, OH-, in aqueous solution.
Binary acid An acid that contains only two different elements: Hydrogen and one of the more-electronegative elements.
Strong acid An acid that ionizes completely in aqueous solution.
Weak acid An acid that is a weak electrolyte.
Amphoteric Any species that can react as either an acid or a base.
BrØnsted-Lowery base A molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor.
BrØnsted-Lowery acid A molecule or ion that is a proton donor.
Lewis acid-base reaction The formation of one or more covalent bonds between an electron-pair donor and an electron-pair acceptor.
Lewis acid An atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond.
Lewis base An atom, ion, or molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond.
Diprotic acid An acid that can donate two protons per molecule.
Monoprotic acid An acid that can donate only one proton (hydrogen ion) per molecule.
Polyprotic acid An acid that can donate more than one proton per molecule.
Triprotic acid An acid able to donate three protons per molecule.
Conjugate acid The species that is formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton.
Conjugate base The species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton.
Neutralization The reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules.
Salt An ionic compound composed o a cation and the anion from an acid; an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid.
Oxyacid An acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually a non-metal.
BrØnsted-Lowery reaction The transfer of protons from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base).
Created by: EllieKennamer



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