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Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

a hydrocarbon that contains only carbon-carbon single bonds saturated hydrocarbon
hydrocarbons in which carbons are joined together by single bonds are called alkanes
CnH2n+2 is the type formula for alkanes
the type formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2
prefix meth- 1
prefix eth- 2
prefix prop- 3
prefix but- 4
prefix pent- 5
prefix hex- 6
prefix hept- 7
prefix oct- 8
prefix non- 9
prefix dec- 10
when a hydrogen atom is removed from an alkane a _______ is formed alkyl group
type formula for an alkyl group CnH2n+1
CnH2n+1 is the type formula for alkyl group
the substances formed when an alkyl group attaches to Group VII elements are alkyl halides
RX is the general formula for alkyl halides
the general formula for alkyl halides is RX
alkyl halide: carbon tetrachloride CCl4
alkyl halide: chloroform CHCl3
these hydrocarbons have multiple bonds between carbon atoms unsaturated hydrocarbons
a large molecule made by linking together a number of monomers, or basic chemical units polymer
the linking together of monomers or basic chemical units to form a polymer polymerization
substances which contain one or more double bonds between two of the carbon atoms alkenes
CnH2n is the type formula for alkenes
the type formula for alkenes is CnH2n
the simplest alkene is ethene
an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing one or more triple bonds between two of the carbon atoms alkyne
CnH2n-2 is the type formula for alkyne
the type formula for alkynes is CnH2n-2
the simplest of the alkynes, known as a settling gas: ethyne
any compound containing a resonance-stabilized ring such as benzene and its derivatives aromatic
C6H6 is benzene
a colorless flammable liquid used to synthesize many other chemicals benzene
a solvent found in paint thinners, also used to manufacture TNT toluene
C6H5CH3 toluene
this aromatic features a methyl group toluene
also called carbolic acid/weak acid, or hydroxybenzene phenol
C6H5OH phenol
this aromatic features a hydroxyl group phenol
orthodichlorobenzene has the Cl attached at the ___ and ____ carbons 1st and 2nd
metadichlorobenzene has the Cl attached at the ___ and _____ carbons 1st and 3rd
paradichlorobenzene has the Cl attached at the ___ and ____ carbons 1st and 4th
this aromatic is also used as a mold-inhibitor paradichlorobenzene
ortho, meta, and para isomers where a methyl group are the hydrogen substitutes xylenes
these aromatics make very good organic solvents and are good at synthesizing other products xylenes
ortho, meta, and para isomers where a methyl group AND a hydroxyl group are attached cresols
these aromatics make good surface disinfectants and are used in lysol products cresols
contain two or more fused benzene rings, the simplest of which is naphthalene polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
have a ring structure that contains some element other than carbon IN the ring heterocyclic compounds
nicotine is an example of a heterocyclic compound
indole and skatole are examples of heterocyclic compounds
Created by: amyziolkowski