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# Vocabulary: gases

diffusion spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion
effusion a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
elastic collision a collision between gas particles and between gas particles and container walls in which there is no net loss of kinetic energy
fluid a substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container; a liquid or a gas
ideal gas an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
kinetic-molecular theory a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
real gas a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumption of the kinetic-molecular theory
atmosphere of pressure (atm) exactly equivalent to 760mm Hg
barometer a device used to measure atmospheric pressure
millimeter of mercury (mm of Hg) a common unit of pressure
newton the SI unit for force; the force that will increase the speed of a one kilogram mass by one meter per second it is applied
pascal the pressure exerted by a force of one newton acting on an area of one square meter
kilopascal more convenient way to express pressure; 1 atm is equal to 101.325 kPa
pressure the force per unit area on a surface
standard temperature and pressure (STP) the agreed-upon standard conditions of exactly 1 atm pressure and 0 C
standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP) 1 bar; 1 atm and 25 C
torr a pressure of 1 mm Hg; 1 torr
absolute zero the temperature -237.15 C, given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale
Kelvin a scale that starts at a temperature corresponding to -273.15 C
Boyle’s Law the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with pressure at constant temperature
Charles’s Law the volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperature
Combined gas law the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas
Dalton’s Law of partial pressure the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
Gay-Lusscac’s Law the pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature
Ideal gas law the mathematical relationship of pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas
Partial pressure the pressure of each gas in a mixture
Avogadro’s Law equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules
van der Waals equation an equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real dases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases
bar 100 kPa
Gas Constant R equals 0.082 liter-atmospheres per mole-degree
Created by: alexstw66