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# Vocabulary: gases

Question | Answer |
---|---|

diffusion | spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion |

effusion | a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening |

elastic collision | a collision between gas particles and between gas particles and container walls in which there is no net loss of kinetic energy |

fluid | a substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container; a liquid or a gas |

ideal gas | an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory |

kinetic-molecular theory | a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion |

real gas | a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumption of the kinetic-molecular theory |

atmosphere of pressure (atm) | exactly equivalent to 760mm Hg |

barometer | a device used to measure atmospheric pressure |

millimeter of mercury (mm of Hg) | a common unit of pressure |

newton | the SI unit for force; the force that will increase the speed of a one kilogram mass by one meter per second it is applied |

pascal | the pressure exerted by a force of one newton acting on an area of one square meter |

kilopascal | more convenient way to express pressure; 1 atm is equal to 101.325 kPa |

pressure | the force per unit area on a surface |

standard temperature and pressure (STP) | the agreed-upon standard conditions of exactly 1 atm pressure and 0 C |

standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP) | 1 bar; 1 atm and 25 C |

torr | a pressure of 1 mm Hg; 1 torr |

absolute zero | the temperature -237.15 C, given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale |

Kelvin | a scale that starts at a temperature corresponding to -273.15 C |

Boyle’s Law | the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with pressure at constant temperature |

Charles’s Law | the volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperature |

Combined gas law | the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas |

Dalton’s Law of partial pressure | the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases |

Gay-Lusscac’s Law | the pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature |

Ideal gas law | the mathematical relationship of pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas |

Partial pressure | the pressure of each gas in a mixture |

Avogadro’s Law | equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules |

van der Waals equation | an equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real dases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases |

bar | 100 kPa |

Gas Constant | R equals 0.082 liter-atmospheres per mole-degree |

Created by:
alexstw66