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Ch 10 Vocab - Gases

diffusion spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion.
effusion a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening.
elastic collision a collision between gas particles and container walls in which there are no net loss of kinetic energy.
fluid a substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container; a liquid or a gas.
ideal gas an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.
kinetic-molecular theory a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion.
real gas a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.
atmosphere of pressure (atm) exactly equivalent to 760 mm Hg.
barometer a device used to measure atmospheric pressure.
millimeter of mercury (mm of Hg) a common unit of pressure.
newton the SI unit for force; the force that will increase the speed of a one kilogram mass by one meter per second it is applied.
pascal the pressure exerted by a force of one newton acting on an area of one square meter.
kilopascal 1,000 pascals.
pressure the force per unit area on a surface.
standard temperature and pressure (STP) the agreed-upon standard conditions of exactly 1 atm pressure and 0oC.
standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP) corresponds to 25oC, 1 bar.
torr a pressure equal to 1 mm Hg in honor of Torricelli for his invention of the barometer.
absolute zero the temperature -273.15oC, given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale.
Kelvin equal to 273.15 + oC.
Boyle’s Law states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure at constant temperature.
Charles’s Law the volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperature.
Combined gas law the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas.
Dalton’s Law of partial pressure the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.
Gay-Lusscac’s Law the pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature.
Ideal gas law the mathematical relationship of pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of gas.
Partial pressure the pressure of each gas in a mixture.
Avogadro’s Law 6.0221367x1023; the number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance.
van der Waals equation the equation that relates real gases to the ideal gas.
bar 100kPa or 25oC.
Gas Constant R equals 0.082 liter-atmospheres per mole-degree.
Created by: EKinateder