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# Ch 10 Vocab - Gases

Question | Answer |
---|---|

diffusion | spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion. |

effusion | a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening. |

elastic collision | a collision between gas particles and container walls in which there are no net loss of kinetic energy. |

fluid | a substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container; a liquid or a gas. |

ideal gas | an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory. |

kinetic-molecular theory | a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. |

real gas | a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory. |

atmosphere of pressure (atm) | exactly equivalent to 760 mm Hg. |

barometer | a device used to measure atmospheric pressure. |

millimeter of mercury (mm of Hg) | a common unit of pressure. |

newton | the SI unit for force; the force that will increase the speed of a one kilogram mass by one meter per second it is applied. |

pascal | the pressure exerted by a force of one newton acting on an area of one square meter. |

kilopascal | 1,000 pascals. |

pressure | the force per unit area on a surface. |

standard temperature and pressure (STP) | the agreed-upon standard conditions of exactly 1 atm pressure and 0oC. |

standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP) | corresponds to 25oC, 1 bar. |

torr | a pressure equal to 1 mm Hg in honor of Torricelli for his invention of the barometer. |

absolute zero | the temperature -273.15oC, given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale. |

Kelvin | equal to 273.15 + oC. |

Boyle’s Law | states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure at constant temperature. |

Charles’s Law | the volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperature. |

Combined gas law | the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas. |

Dalton’s Law of partial pressure | the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases. |

Gay-Lusscac’s Law | the pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature. |

Ideal gas law | the mathematical relationship of pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of gas. |

Partial pressure | the pressure of each gas in a mixture. |

Avogadro’s Law | 6.0221367x1023; the number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance. |

van der Waals equation | the equation that relates real gases to the ideal gas. |

bar | 100kPa or 25oC. |

Gas Constant | R equals 0.082 liter-atmospheres per mole-degree. |