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Chemistry3

Cards for exam 3

QuestionAnswer
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is conserved
Second law of Thermodynamics Any system NOT at equilibrium has an inherent direction in which it will move in order to reach equilibrium *This is called a spontaneous reaction
Third law of Thermodynamics The Entropy of a pure crystalline solid is equal to zero at absolute zero (i.e. there is no disorder)
Factors determining Spontaneity 1) Exothermic reactions have a strong tendency to be spontaneous 2) The greater disorder of the system, the greater system entropy, therefore high spontaneity
Gibbs free energy change(equation) delta_g=delta_h-[(t(kelvin))(delta_s)] delta_g(rxn)=delta_g(prod)-delta_g(react) *State function
Gibbs free energy change and reaction spontaneity delta_g,negative= Occurs in forward direction delta_g,positive= Occurs in reverse direction delta_g,0= Equilibrium
Standard Conditions solids exist as pure solids liquids exist as pure liquids gases exist at 1 atm pressure solutions have all solutes present at a concentration of 1 mol/l 25 degrees Celsius
Gibbs free energy change Measure of the maximum amount of usable work that can be done by the system on the surroundings by a spontaneous process at constant pressure * Tells us nothing about the speed of the reaction
Gibbs free energy change under non-standard conditions delta_g=delta_g(std)-(R)(T)(ln(Q))
delta_g to K delta_g=-(R)(T)(ln(K))
Created by: Whatx