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# Astronomy 1400 test2

### Astronomy 1400 test2 4,5,6,7

What is the difference between speed, velocity, and acceleration? what are their units? 1--Speed-- how fast and object is moving (distance/time) 2--Velocity--speed and direction 3--Acceleration--Change in objects velocity
Know the accomplishments of Sir Isaac Newton that we discussed in class. a. Explained all mechanics both celestial and earthly (Laws of motion and Force of Gravity) b. Invented Calculus c. Derives, corrects, expands Kepler’s Laws d. Wrote Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica
What are Newton’s Three Laws of Motion? Give some examples of Newton’s laws at work. 1 a. 1) A body at rest or in motion at a constant speed along a straight line remains in that state unless acted upon by an outside force.
What are Newton’s Three Laws of Motion? Give some examples of Newton’s laws at work. 2 b. 2) A net force changes an objects momentum, accelerating it in the direction of the force. Force= rate of change in momentum (momentum= mass x velocity) For constant mass: force=mass x acceleration so F=ma
What are Newton’s Three Laws of Motion? Give some examples of Newton’s laws at work. 3 c. 3) Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body exerts an equal and opposite force on
What is the mathematical definition of momentum and angular momentum? a. momentum= mass x velocity b. Angular momentum- momentum in spinning = mass x velocity x radius
5. Explain briefly as we did in class how Newton’s Laws lead to the law of conservation on momentum. a. An objects momentum won’t change if object is left along b. But a force can change an object’s momentum c. However, an = and opposite force changes some other objects momentum by an = and opposite amount
6. What is angular momentum and torque? What is the law of conservation of angular momentum? a. Torque- anything that causes change in angular momentum b. Conservation of angular momentum: As long as there is no external torque, the total angular momentum of a set interacting objects cannot change.
7. Do we need to constantly fuel planets to spin and revolve? Do spacecraft constantly need fuel for propulsion through space? Why or why not? a. No since there is no drag in space the objects just keep moving in the way that they were initially pushed
8. What is the law of conservation of energy? a. Energy can not be created nor destroyed
Created by: lhh305