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form 3 chemistry

WHAT IS CHEMISTRY? the study of chemical and thier reactions
what is melting point? the temp at which a substance changes state from a SOLID to a LIQUID
what is freezing point? the temp at which a substance changes state from LIQUID to SOLID
the boiling point for water and the freezing point for water are the same, what is it? 0 degrees Celsius
how do states of matter change? states of matter change by increasing and decreasing energy
what keeps particles together to form matter? forces of attraction
name 3 properties of solids clesely packed, fixed shape, fixed volume
name 3 properties of iquids can move, no fixed shape, fixed volume
name 3 properties of gases no shape, no volume, easily compressived
what is a cooling curve? a curve which shows the cooling of a substance. it shows the temperature and changes of state
what heat energy is involved in changing states? latent heat
what is a heating curve? a curve that shows the heating of substances. it shows temperature and changes of state
occurs at a specific point,and occurs throughout a liquid what is it? BOILING
occurs at temp between liquid to gas or at the surface of a liquid, what is it? EVAPORATION
what is kinetic theory of matter( K.T.M.) kinetic theory states that all MATTER is made up of PARTICLES which are in constant MOTION and the amt of motion in a liquid depend on the amt of ENERGY present
name 3 processes that support K.T.M.? diffusion,osmosis, Brownian motion
what is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentraton? diffusion
what is osmosis the process where water molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a semi partially membrane
brownian motion is the haphazard or random movement of partiles when_______________________? brownian motion is the haphazard or random movement of partiles when SUSPENDED IN A FLUID MEDIUM.
3 or more atoms joined together? a molecule
what is an atom? the smallest particle of an element
a chemical substances formed from 2 or more elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition a compound
what is an element? substances that cannot be divied or changes into different substances by ordinary chemical methods
a combination of 2 or more substances which can be separated by physical means a mixture
what is a particle? a general word used when we can;t be exact about the type of things being discribed
an atom or molecule that doesn't have the same amt of electrons and protons an ton
name 3 properties of an atom? protons(+), neytrons (0) and electrons (-)
where is the nucleus located? at the centre of an atom
what does the nucleus contain? protons and neutrns
what is a shell/obitals? a given space in which an electron is most-likely to exist.
what is the atomic number? the number of protons in an atom
the number of protons equal____________? the number of protons equal the number of electrons
what is the atomic mass? the # of proton + the # of electrons
mass # - atomic # = neutrons
the amt of electrons in each shell of an atom electronic configuration
the amt of electrons in the outermost shall is referred to as _____________? valence electrons/ valent electrons
what is an isotope? an element that has the same atomic number but a different mass number
what is a radio isotope? an isotope that contains neuclii that are unstable and give of energy in the form of radiation
what are some positives about radioisotopes? carbon 14 dating, chemotherapy,detection of disease
what does the periodic table consists of? rows ans columns
what are the rows called? periods
what are the columns called? groups
what is group 8? group is is a noble group of elements with a completely filled outer motion
why do molecules bond? to become stable
what are the 3 types of bonding? ironic, covalent and metallic
ionic bonding happens between_____________________? a metal and a non metal
after bonding, what happens to the atom? it develops a charge and it is now called an ion
what are positive ions called? CATIONS
what are negative ions called? ANIONS
if the electrons are LESS than the protons the atom is_________________? POSITIVE
if the electrons are MORE than the protons the atom is____________? NEGATIVE
name 2 properties of ionic substances soluble in water and can conduct electricity in a molten or aqueous state
what is covalent bonding? the bonding between non metals
when 1 pair of electrons is shared, what is it referred to? a single bond
what is a double bond? when 2 pair of electrons is shared.
when 3 pair of electrons is shared, what is it referred to? a triple bond
what is the chemical formula for water? H2O
what is the chemical formula for ammonia? NH3
CH4, is the chemical formula for what? methane
what is the chemical formula for tetra chloro methane? CCl4
name 2 properties of covalent substance doesn't conduct electricity, doesn't dissolve in polar substances
what is metallic bonding? the bonding which exist within a metal ,which allows it to exist.
name 4 properties of metals high density, high melting points, conducts heat and sonorous , has a metallic luster
what does HOMOGENEOUS mean? uniformed, one layer
what is a non-uniformed mixture called? heterogeneous mixture
what is a solute? a substance that is being dissolved
what is a solvent? a substance that does the dissolving
what is solubility? the amt of grams of a solute that dissolves in 100 grams of water
what is the word used to refer to the ability of a substance to dissolve water? soluble
what is a solution? a homogeneous mixture that is made up of a solvent and a solute
name 3 properties of a solid coloured, one layer, throughly mixed and can be transparent
what is the word used for , a homogeneous mixture where the solute particles are bigger than those in a solution, but smaller in those of a suspension? colloids
what is filtration used for? separating solid/liquid mixtures
what is the principle behind filtration? difference in particle size
what is evaporation based on? differences in boiling points
what is the separating funnel used for? liquid/liquid separations
what is the principle behind the separating funnel? differences in density
what is evaporation is used to separate? liquid/solid mixtures
what is crystallization? crystals from a super saturated solution. most solvents on heating increase the amt of solute it can dissolve. this is saturated
what is a saturated solution? one which contains the most amt of solute the solvent can hold
in most solvents on heating increase the amt of solute it can dissolve. this is called___________? SUPER SATURATED SOLUTION
WHAT IS SOLVENT EXTRACTION? solvent extraction is used to separate substances based on differences in solubility
when is solvent extraction is used? when a solute/solid is soluble in a given solvent while the other is not
what is the separation Technique used to separate 2 solids substances where one one sublimes and the other does not SUBLIMATION
what is the technique used to separate mixtures of inks and dyes paper chromatography
what is paper chromatography used for? to identify the compnents
what is the name of the second technique that is used to separate a solid/liquid mixture? SIMPLE DISTILLATION
what is simple distillation based on? the differences in boiling point and hence used to separate mixtures w/ components of very diff. boiling points
what is fractional distillation? a technique used to separate substances of similar boiling points
what is the name of the apparatus used in fractional distillation? fractionating columns
what is the name of the apparatus used in simple distillation? liebir condenser
what are the two types of changes that take place in science? physical and chemical changes
what are physical changes? changes in state or changes in the physical structure of a substance NB- there is no change in the chemical nature of the substance
what are chemical changes? changes in the chemical nature of a substance. also referred to as a chemical reaction NB the chemical formula is changed
name the steps in writing chemical eq'ns. S.1- write the word eq'n S.2- convert to symbols S.3- balance the eq'n
name the 5 states of substance/chemicals. solid (S) liquid (L) gas (g) aqueous (aq) molten (M)
all carbonates are soluble except... sodium, potassium and ammonium
sodium, potassium and calcium are the exceptions to the insolubility of? hydroxides
all oxides are insoluble. what three oxides react with water to form hydroxide? sodium oxide, potassium oxide and calcium oxide react with water to form hydroxide
chloride, bromide and iodide are all soluble except sliver and... lead salts
all nitrates are ... soluble
all sulphates are... soluble
soluble=dissolves in water=aqueous insoluble=doesn't dissolve in water=solid
name the 4 types of reactions 1. combination/ synthesis reaction 2. decomposition reaction 3. single displacement/ replacement reaction 4.double replacement
combination reaction is the combining of... two or more reactants to create a single product
a product breakdown or splitting into its elements/ reactants is the reaction called/ decomposition reaction
single displacement is when a new substance.... replaces another substance
two substances switch places with two substances in reaction. what is the term used to describe this process? double replacement
what is an ALLOTROPE? substance that are of the same elements but exhibit different physical forms
what are the allotrope that carbon possess? graphite and diamond
graphite has hexagonal horizontal layers diamond has giant, molecular structure and diamond is the hardest natural occurring substance
graphite and diamond are referred to as... GIANT COVALENT
Fact; as long ass electrons can move, electricity can flow. pollution is the unfavourable alteration in the environment due to humans' influence
there are 4 types of pollution: air- smoke and dust land- littering name the other two. water- littering in water noise- loud music, shouting, bad singing...
there are 2 sources of pollution, which are? humans- waste(domestic), vehicles, biological(dead bodies) industrial- factories, oil tankers
some pollutants are carbon monoxide carbon dioxide sulphur dioxide
what are some effects of pollutants? acid rain depletion of the ozone layer carbon dioxide poisoning
if oxygen is present, the glowing splint relights if hydrogen is present, a popping sound is heard with a lit splint
is carbon dioxide is present it extinguishes a lit splint and turns lime water milky white
Created by: krystel2011



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