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Worsham Chem Q1

QuestionAnswer
The study of the nature of matter & the changes that matter undergoes. Chemistry
Matter Anything that possesses mass & occupies space.
Nature of matter 1) composition of a particular kind of matter 2) forces holding its parts together 3) Its observable properties
What are the two types of chemical bonds? 1) Ionic bonds 2) Covalent bonds
What is a physical change? A change that does not cause a change in the chemical composition of a material.
Melting ice, Boiling water, and Freezing water are examples of... Physcial change
What is a chemical change? A change that results in the formation of a new substance.
Decomp. of proteins, Cremation, and embalming are examples of... Chemical change
What is energy? The ability of a system or material to do work.
Kinetic energy is energy in motion
Falling water, falling objects, flowing electricity are examples of... Kinetic energy
Potenial energy is stored energy
Stored chemical energy in food, a battery, a drawn bow are examples of... Potenial energy
Inorganic chemistry is the study of compounds USUALLY containing elements other than carbon.
The 4 primary classes of compounds are... acids, bases, salts, and oxides
Organic chemistry is... The study of certain carbon compounds
Biochemistry is... The study of compounds produced by living organisms.
Proteins, carbs, and lipids are the 3 primary compounds studied in... Biochemistry
Embalming chemistry is... The study of those types of matter and changes in matter related to the disinfection & preservation of human remains. Certian aspects of all three of the major divisions of chemistry are incorporated.
The study of those physical & chemical changes in the human body that are caused by the process of death. Thanatochemistry (tha-nat-o-chemistry)
What are the common set of units used by all scientists? International System of Units or SI Unit or the Metric System
The standard unit of length is the meter
The symbol for the meter is m
1 meter is equal to 39.37"
The standard unit of volume is liter
The symbol for the liter is L
1 liter is equal to 1.06 quarts
The standard unit of mass is kilogram
The symbol for the kilogram kg
454 grams are equal to 1lb.
The standard unit of heat is calorie
The symbol for the calorie is cal
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1 degree c at 15 degrees c. calorie
Calorie=kilocalorie 1kcal=1000cal=1Cal
A calorie is too small a unit so a ______ is used kilocalorie (Cal)
M is the symbol for... Mega
The exponential expression for Mega is 10 to the 6th power
k or K is the symbol for... Kilo
The exponential expression for Kilo is 10 to the 3rd power
d is the symbol for... deci
The exponential expression for deci is 10 to the -1 power
c is the symbol for... Centi
The exponential expression for Centi is 10 to the -2 power
m is the symbol for... Milli
The exponential expression for Milli is 10 to the -3 power
u is the symbol for... Micro
The exponential expression for Micro is 10 to the -6 power
n is the symbol for... Nano
The exponential expression for Nano is 10 to the -9 power
The law of conservation of mass states... Matter is neither created nor destroyed
The law of conservation of energy states... Energy is neither created nor destroyed
The law of conservation of energy and the 1st law of thermodynamics are the same, T/F True
physical property a characteristic that can be observed w/out altering the chemical composition of a substance
color, odor, taste and feel are examples of physical properties
3 typical states of matter solid, liquid and gas
melting point the temperature at which a substance changes from the solid state to the liquid state
the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid freezing point
the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas boiling point
solubility the measure of how well 2 substances mix
the relationship between an object's mass and volume occupied by that mass Density
What is the equation for density d=m/v
Specific gravity the ratio of the mass of the substance to the mass of equal volume of water at the same temp
What units are used in specific gravity none. because it is a ratio of 2 masses
Chemical property characteristic that can be observed when the substance is interacting with other forms of matter the interaction results in an alteration of the chemical composition of the substance
examples for chemical properties are burning=match+oxygen; sodium+water=hydorgen gas & sodium hydroxide
Physical change a process that manifests a physical propery
Chemical change a process that manifests a chemical property. Forms new substances with their own chemical & physical properties
what are the stages of matter? solid, liquid and gas
heat of fusion specific quantity of heat that is absorbed to convert 1 gram of solid to 1 of liquid at the substances melting point
how much heat is required to change 1 gram of ice to 1 gram of water? 80 calories
heat of vaporization amount of heat needed to change 1 gram of a substance from the liquid to the gaseous state at the boiling point
how much heat is required to change 1 gram of water to water vapor 540 calories
exothermic the process of releasing heat
endothermic the process of absorbing heat
sublimation change in state directly from solid to gas
entropy measure of the amount of disorder or randomness
plaster of Paris is an example of exothermic
dry ice and heating iodine crystals are examples of sublimation
which state has the most entropy gas
which state has the lease entropy solid
what are the properties of gases compressibility, expansivity and diffusibility
no fixed volume but occupies the entire space of the container, this decribes what the volume of a gas
pressure force per unit area
1 atmoshpere is equal to 760mm Hg or 760 torr
what is the purpose of the gas laws describe the relationship between a gases perssure, volume and temperature
Boyle's Law relationship between the volume of a quantity of gas and its pressure when the temperature is constant.
the relationship between volume and pressure is _____ in Boyle's law inversely proportional
breathing is an example of Boyle's Law
Charles' Law relationship between a gases volume and temperature when the pressure is constant
the ______ scale is used in Charles' Law Kelvin scale
the relationship between volume and temperature is _______ in Charles' Law directly proportional
an incubator is an example of Charles' Law
the Kelvin scale is also known as the absolute temperature scale
degree Celsius + 273 = Kelvin
what are the properties of liquids takes shape of the container it is in, maintians its own volume, practically incompressible, evaporation, and equilibrium
evaporation transition from liquid to gas (endothermic)
equilibrium when 2 opposing rates are equal
equilibrium vapor pressure the pressure exerted by a vapor when it is in equilibrium with its liquid
as temperature increases vapor pressure increases, therefore they are directly proportional
boiling rapid passage of liquid particles to the vapor state by forming bubbles
normal boiling point the BP at 1 atmosphere pressure, 760mm Hg or 760 torr
what is the BP of water on all three scales 100 degrees Celsius, 212 degrees F, 373K
what if the FP of water on all three scales 0 degrees Celsius, 32 degrees F, 273K
properties of solids particles are held tightly together, deginate shape & volume, nearly incompressible, nearly no expansivity, low entropy.
melting when heat is added to a solid, kinetic energy of the particles increases until the solid breaks apart
heat of fusion the amount of heat that is absorbed to convert 1 gram of solid to 1 gram of liquid at the MP
matter can be divided into pure substances and mixtures
pure substances are classifed as elements and compounds
elements simple substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical means
oxygen is an element
water is a compound
a mixture is 2 or more substances not chemically united
mixtures are classified as homogens and heterogenis
homogens true solutions
heterogenis no uniform composition
properties of compounds elements join together chemically in a definate proportion by mass, can be decomposed by chemical changes
Law of Definite Proportions states that when 2 or more elements combine, they will always be in a fixed or definite proportion by mass
what are the 4 types of compounds most important to us in inorganic chemistry acids, oxides, salts, bases
properties of mixtures formed with varying proportions of their components, can be separated by physical changes
an example of a homogeneous mixture is arterial solution
an example of a heterogeneous mixture sand and iron filings
the Law of Conservation of Mass states matter is niether created nor destroyed
the Law of Conservation of Energy states energy is niether created nor destroyed
the Law of Conservation of Energy is also known as 1st Law of Thermodynamics
hydrolosis water breaking down
proteins break down into amino acids
amino acids break down into amines and organic acids
amines break down into ammonia and hydrogen gas
organic acids break down into carbon dioxide, water & oxygen
H hydorgen
He helium
Li lithium
Be beryllium
B boron
C carbon
N nitrogen
O oxygen
F fluorine
Ne neon
Mg magnesium
Al aluminum
Si silicon
P phosphorous
S sulfur
Cl chlorine
Ar argon
K potassium
Ca calcium
Fe iron
Cu cooper
Zn zinc
As arsenic
Br bromine
Ag silver
I iodine
Au gold
Hg mercury
Pb lead
What does amu stand for atomic mass unit
what charge does an electron have negitive
what charge does a proton have positive
what charge does a neutron have neutral
what particales are located in the nucleus neutrons and protons
what is the name of group 1A alkali metals or reactive metals
what is the name of group IIA alkaline Earth metals
what is the name of group IIIA Boron Group
what is the name of group IVA Carbon Group
what is the name of group VA Nitrogen Group
what is teh name of group VIA Oxygen Group
what is the name of group VIIA Halogen Group (salt forming)
what is the name of group VIIIA noble gases or inert gases
which group is non-reactive and the most stabile group VIIIA the noble gases/inert gases
group A elements are also known as representative elements
what do the periods represent the number of energy levels an atom has
what do the group numbers represent the number of electrons in the outer most energy level
where is the atomic number located on the periodic table of elements above the symbol
where is the atomic mass located on the periodic table of elements under the symbol
how do you know how many protons an element has the atomic number
how do you know how many electrons an element has the atomic number
how do you know how many neutrons an element has round the atomic mass to the nearest whole number, the atomic mass-the atomic number=number of neutrons
what is the equation that will tell you many electrons are in an energy level 2n to the second power (2, 8, 18, 32)
how do you find the valence electron the group number
how is the atomic number symbolized the letter z
how are the estimated paths of electrons labeled s, p, d, f
the total electrons in the outermost energy level is the valence electrons
how many types does an s-orbital have, what is the max electrons that can be held 1 type with a max of 2
how many types does a p-orbital have, what is the max electrons that can be held 3 types with a max of 6
how many types does a d-orbital have, what is the max electrons that can be held 5 types with a max of 10
how many types does a f-orbital have, what is the max electrons that can be held 7 types with a max of 14
the first energy level has what orbital only one s-orbital
every energy level has one ____ s-orbital
Created by: 1157564676