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Chem102-Exam 3

ChemExam 3

VocabularyDefinition
Homogenous Equilibrium When the products and reactants of an equilibrium reaction form a single phase, whether gas or liquid
Heterogenous Equilibrium A system whose reactants, products, or both are in more than one phase
Le Châtelier’s Principle This principle states that if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the composition of the system will change to relieve the applied stress.
Buffer A solution that resists a change in pH when hydroxide or hydronium ions are added.
Common Ion Effect The limiting of acid (or base) ionization caused by addition of its conjugate base (or conjugate acid)
Titrant The substance being added during a titration
Equivalence Point The point in a titration at which one reactant has been exactly consumed by addition of the other reactant, must be determined mathematically
Primary Standard A pure, solid acid or base that can be accurately weighed for preparation of a titrating reagent; has to be cheap to buy, stable on shell, non-hydroscopic, chemistry to be predictable, and high mass
End Point The physical change which results when the equivalence point has been reached. In colorimetric titrations, this is a color change of the indicator.
Secondary Standard A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard. (NaOH)
Titration A procedure for quantitative analysis of a substance by an essentially complete reaction in solution with a measure quantity of a reagent of known concentration
Solubility The concentration of solute in equilibrium with undissolved solute in a saturated solution
Molar Solubility Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a liter of saturated solution
Ksp-Solubility Product Constant An equilibrium constant relating the concentrations of the ionization products of a dissolved substance
Ka–Acid Dissociation Constant The equilibrium constant for the ionization of an acid in aqueous solution
Kb–Base Dissociation Constant The equilibrium constant for the ionization of a base in aqueous solution
Lewis Acid A substance that is an electron-pair acceptor
Lewis Base A substance that is an electron-pair donor
Bronsted-Lowry Acid Any substance that can donate a proton
Bronsted-Lowry Base Any substance that can accept proton
Arrenhius Acid A substance that dissociates in water to produce H+ ions (protons)
Arrhenius Base A substance that dissociates in water to produce OH- ions (hydroxide)
Henderson-Hasselbach Equation An approximate equation that shows the relationship between the pH/pOH of a solution and the pKa/pKb and the ratio of the concentrations of the dissociated chemical species pH=pKa+log(salt)-log(base) or pOH=pKb+log(salt)-log(base)
Conjugate Acid Contains one more proton than its base
Conjugate Base Contains one less proton than its acid
Reversible Reaction Reaction can occur in either direction, they do not go to completion
Equilibrium It's a microscopic event, regardless of the direction of approach the forward rate and the reverse rate rate are the same and changes in concentration cannot be observed.
Equilibrium Equation The ratio of the product of the equilibrium concentrations of the products(raised to their coefficients in the balanced equation) to the product of the equilibrium concentrations of the reactants (raised to their coefficients in the balanced equation)
Reaction Quotient The product of concentrations of products divided by the product of concentrations of reactants, each raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient in the chemical equation
Exothermic Heat is lost by the system, and is added to the product side
Endothermic Heat is gained by the system, and is added to the reactant side
Catalyst Decreases the activation energy of both the forward and reverse reaction equally; equilibrium will be established faster
Autoionization Interaction of two water molecules to produce a hydronium ion and hydroxide ion by proton transfer
pH The negative of the base-10 logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration; a measure of acidity
pOH the negative of the base- 10 logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration; a measure of basicity
pKa The negative of the base- 10 logarithm of the acid ionization constant
pKb The negative of the base- 10 logarithm of the base ionization constant
Amphiprotic A substance that can act as an acid by donating a proton to a base to form the hydroxide ion or as a base by accepting a proton from an acid to form the hydronium ion
Amphoteric Substances that can behave as both an acid and a base
Analytical Concentration the total concentration of all forms of an acid or base that are present in solution, regardless of their stat of protonation
Buffer Capacity The number of moles of strong acid and strong base needed to change the pH of 1 Liter of buffer solution by 1 pH unit
Created by: ansecaballero