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atomic mass the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
physical property a property that can be observed or measured without changing the matter's identity
physical change a change that affects one or more physical properties of a substance
chemical property describes matter based on its ability to change into new matter that has different properties
chemical change happens when one or more substances are changed into new substances that have new and different properties
atom the smallest unit of an element/matter that has the properties of that element
electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge
nucleus an atom's central region which is made up of protons and neutrons
proton a subatomic particle that has a postive charge and is found in the nucleus of an atom
neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge and is found in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
element a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
metal an element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well
nonmetal an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly
molecule two or more elements chemically bonded; can be the same element or different elements (O2, H2O)
compound a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
mixture a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
exothermic a chemical reaction in which heat is released to the surroundings; (temperature increases)
endothermic a chemical reaction that requires heat; (temperature decreases)
precipitate a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in a solution of liquids
Aristotle a Greek scholar who thought all matter was made of only 4 elements: earth, water, fire, air
Democritus a Greek scholar who was the first to use the word "atom" meaning "uncuttable"
Bohr man who determined electrons move in different energy levels called "shells"
Chadwick man who discovered the neutron
Dalton man who determined compounds form by combining atoms of different elements; first to start using Democritus' word "atom" again in the 1800s
Rutherford man who discovered the proton and nucleus and that most of an atom is empty space
Thomson man who discovered electrons
Created by: mrsgilbert