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Holt Chemistry Ch1-7

Holt Chemistry Chapters 1-7, Gulf Shores Midterm

Chemical Any substance that has a defined composition
Chemical Reaction The process by which one of more substances change to produce one or more different substances
States of Matter The physical forms of matter, which are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
Reactant A substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
Product A substance that forms in a chemical reaction
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space
Volume A measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
Mass A measure of the amount of matter in an object; a fundamental property of an object that is not affected by the forces that act on the object, such as gravitational force.
Weight A measure of the gravitational force entered on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe
Quantity Something that has magnitude, size, or amount
Unit A quantity adopted as a standard of measurement
Conversion factor A ratio that is derived from the equality of two different units and that can be used to convert from one unit to the other
Physical property A characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
Density The ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance; often expressed as grams per cubic centimeter for solids and liquids and as grams per liter for gases.
Chemical property A property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions.
Atom The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
Pure substances A sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties
Element A substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number.
Molecule The smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance; it can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together.
Compound A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds.
Mixture A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined.
Homogeneous Describes something that has a uniform structure or composition throughout
Heterogeneous Composed of dissimilar components
Energy The capacity to do work
Physical change A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties.
Chemical change A change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties.
Evaporation The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas.
Endothermic Describes a process in which heat is absorbed from the environment
Exothermic Describes a process in which a system releases heat into the environment
Law of conservation of energy The law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another.
Heat The energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures; energy is always transferred from higher-temperature objects to lower-temperature objects until thermal equilibrium is reached.
Kinetic energy The energy of an object that is due to the object's motion
Temperature A measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object.
Specific heat The quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1 K or 1 degree C in a specified way given constant pressure and volume.
Scientific method A series of steps followed to solve problems, including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
Hypothesis A theory or explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested.
Theory An explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning.
Law A summary of many experimental results and observations; a law tells how things work.
Law of conservation of mass The law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical or physical changes.
Accuracy A description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured.
Precision The exactness of a measurement.
Significant figure A prescribed decimal place that determines the amount of rounding off to be done based on the precision of the measurement.
Law of definite proportions The law that states that a chemical compound always contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by weight or mass.
Law of multiple proportions The law that states that when two elements combine to form two or more compounds, the mass of one element that combines with a given mass of the other is in the ratio of small whole numbers.
Electron A subatomic particle that has a negative electric charge
Proton A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons of the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity of an element.
Neutron A subatomic particle that has o charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element.
Mass number The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons of the nucleus of an atom.
Isotope An atom that has the same number of protons (atomic number) as other atoms of the same element but has a different number of neutrons (atomic mass).
Orbital A region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons.
Electromagnetic spectrum All of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
Ground state The lowest energy state of a quantized system.
Excited state A state in which an atom has more energy than it does at its ground state.
Quantum numbers A number that specifies the properties of electrons.
Pauli exclusion principle The principle that states that two particles of a certain class cannot be in the exact same energy state (spin: +1/2, -1/2).
Electron configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Aufbau principle The principle that states that the structure of each successive element is obtained by adding one proton to the nucleus of the atom and one electron to the lowest-energy orbital that is available. (German for "building up--filling orbitals).
Hund's rule The rule that states that for a atom in the ground state, the number of unpaired electrons is the maximum possible and these unpaired electrons have the same spin. (Arrows).
Atomic mass The mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units.
Mole The SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms in 12g of carbon-12.
Molar mass The mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance.
Avogadro's number 6.022 x 10^23, the number of atoms or molecules in 1 mol.
Periodic law The law that states that the repeating physical and chemical properties of elements change periodically with their atomic number.
Valence electron An electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atoms chemical properties.
Group A vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties.
Period A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.
Main-group element An element in the s-block or p-block of the periodic table.
Alkali metal One of the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium).
Alkaline-earth metal One of the elements of Group 2 of the periodic table (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium).
Halogen One of the elements of Group 17 of the periodic table (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine); halogens combine with most metals to form salts. Greek for "salt maker".
Noble gas An unreactive element of Group 18 of the periodic table (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, or radon) that has eight electrons in its outer level (except for helium, which has two electrons).
Transition metals One of the metals that can use the inner shell before using the outer shell to bond.
Lanthanide A member of the rare-earth series of elements, whose atomic numbers range from 58 (cerium) to 71 (lutetium).
Actinide Any of the elements of the actinide series, which have atomic number from 89 (actinium, Ac) through 103 (lawrencium, Lr). All are radioactive.
Alloy A solid or liquid mixture of two or more metals.
Ionization energy The energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion,
Electron shielding The reduction of the attractive force between a positively charged nucleus and its outermost electrons due to the cancellation of some of the positive charge by the negative charges of the inner electrons.
Bond radius Half the distance from center to center of two like atoms that are bonded together.
Electronegativity A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons.
Nuclear reaction A reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom.
Superheavy element An element whose atomic number is greater than 106.
Octet rule A concept of chemical bonding theory that is based on the assumption that atoms tend to have either empty valence shells or full valence shells of eight electrons.
Ion An atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge.
Cation An ion that has a positive charge.
Anion An ion that has a negative charge.
Salt An ionic compound that forms when a metal atom or a positive radical replaces the hydrogen of an acid.
Lattice energy The energy associated with constructing a crystal lattice relative to the energy of all constituent atoms separated by infinite distances.
Crystal lattice The regular pattern in which a crystal is arranged.
Unit cell The smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the three-dimensional pattern of the entire lattice.
Polyatomic ion An ion made of two or more atoms.
Covalent bond A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
Molecular orbital The region of high probability that is occupied by an individual electron as it travels with a wavelike motion in the three-dimensional space around one of two or more associated nuclei.
Bond length The distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy; the average distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms.
Bond energy The energy required to break the bonds in 1 mol of a chemical compound.
Nonpolar covalent bond A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are equally attracted to both bonded atoms.
Polar covalent bond A covalent bond in which a shared pair of electrons is held more closely by one of the atoms.
Dipole A molecule of part of a molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions.
Lewis structure A structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds.
Unshared pair A nonbonding pair of electrons in the valence shell of an atom; also called lone pair.
Single bond A covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons.
Double bond A covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons.
Triple bond A covalent bond in which two atoms share three pairs of electrons.
Resonance structure Any one of two or more possible configurations of the same compound that have identical geometry but different arrangements of electrons.
VSEPR theory Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion; a theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons. surrounding an atom repel each other.
Molar mass The mass in grams of one mole of a substance.
Average atomic mass The weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
Percentage composition The percentage by mass of each element in a compound.
Empirical formula A chemical formula that shows the composition of a compound in terms of the relative numbers and kinds of toms in the simplest ratio.
Molecular formula A chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms.
Created by: Kimiko



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