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Intro to Chemistry

Chapter 4, 5, 6, & 10

Elements Pure substances that cannot be seperated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes. The building blocks of matter. Gold, Carbon, Aluminum.
Group 1 aka 1A Alkali metals
Group 2 aka 2A Alkaline-earth metals
Group 13 -16 aka 3A 4A 5A 6A No common names
Group 17 aka 7A Halogens
Group 18 aka 8A Noble gases
Group 3 - 12 Transition metals
Metal Properties Shiny luster, Conductors of electricity and Heat, Ductile, Malleable, Form alloys-solid solutions.
Nonmetal properties Generally dull appearance, Insulators, Brittle.
Metalloids Behave mostly as nonmetals except for the ability to partially conduct electricity (semi-conductors) "Borderline" elements.
Atom Smallest particle of matter that possess the properties of the element.
(Electrical Charges of Atoms) Positive Charges Repel
(Electrical Charges of Atoms) Negative Charges Repel
(Electrical Charges of Atoms) Unlike Charges Attract
Atomic number and mass number All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons.
Atomic # number of protons in the nucleus
Mass # Number of protons + number of neutrons
Because an atom is electrically neutral The protons equal the same as the electrons.
Isotopes Atoms(elements) that have the same atomic number (protons) but different atomic mass(neutrons). Isotopes occur in nature at different abundance percentages.
Elctromagnetic Radiation is energy that travels as waves through space. is described in terms of wavelength and frequency. moves at the speed of light ia a vacuum.
Wavelength is the distance from a peak in one wave to the peak in the next. is expessed in meters (m) or nanometers (nm)
Frequency is the number of waves that pass by each second. is expressed in hertz, which is equal to cycles per second.
Inverse relationship of wavelengh and frequencies longer wavelenghths have lower frequencies. shorter wavelenghts have higher frequencies. different types of electromagnetic radiation have different wavelengths and frequencies.
Electromagnetic Spectrum arrangess forms of energy from lowest to highest. arranges energy from longest to shortest wavelenghts. shows visable light with wavelenghts from 700-400nm
Photons are packets of energy emitted as light. travel at the speed of light. have energy directly proportional to thier frequency. with high energy have short wavelenghts.with low energy have long wavelenghts.
Atomic spectrum consists of lines of different colors formed when light from a heated element passes through a prism. photons emitted when electrons drop to lowere energy levels.
Electron Energy levels are labeled n=1. n=2, n=3, and so on. increase in energy as n increases. have the electrons with the lowest energy in th efirst energy level(n=1)closest to the nucleus.
An Electron absorbs photons of a specific energy to "jump" to a higher energy level. Falls to a lowere energy level by emitting photons of a specific energy.
Energy Levels are assigned quantum numbers n=1,2,3,4, abd so on. increase in energy as the value of n increases. have a maximum number of electrons equal to 2n squared.
Sublevel (defined shape) containes electrons with the same energy. has the same shape but increases in volume at higher energy levels. is found within each energy level. is designated by the letters s,p,d,or f.
In any energy level the s sublevel has the lowest energy. the s sublevel is folled by the p, d, f, sublevels. higher sublevels are possible, but only s, p, d, f sublevels are needed to hold the number of electrons in the atoms known today.
An orbital or "house" is thre-dimensional space around a nucles where an electron is found most of the time. has a shape that represents electron density(not a path the electron follows)can hold up to two electrons . contains two electrons that spin in opposite directions.
S subshell contains 1 orbital holds 2 e-
P subshell contains 3 orbitals holds 6 e-
d subshell contains 5 orbitals holds 10 e-
f subshell contains 7 orbitals holds 14 e-
An S orbital has a spherical shape around the nucleus. increases in size around the nucleus as the energy level n value increases is a single orbital found in each s sublevel.
P orbital Has a two-lobed shape " dumbelled shape" is one of three p orbitals that make up each p sublevel, each aligned along a different axis. increases in size as the value onf n increases.
Atomic radius is the distance from the nucleus to the valence electrons. the atomic radius decreases going from left to right accross a period. as more protons increase the nuclear atrraction for valence electrons.
Ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove a valence electron. Metals have 1-3 valence electrons and lower ionization energies.
Ionization energy of nonmetals 5-7 valence electrons and have higher ionization energies.
Ionazation energy of noble gases have complete octects (he has two valence electrons) the highest ionization energies in each period.
A positive ion has lost its valence electrons. is smaller than the corresponding metal atom (about half the size)
A negative ion has a complete octect. increases the number of valence electrons. is larger than the corresponding nonmetal atom (about twice the size)
An octet is 8 valence electrons. is associated with the stability of the noble gases does not occuur with He, which is stable with two valence elctrons(duet)
Atoms acuire octets to become more stable. by losing, gaining, or sharing valence electrons. by formaing ionic or covalent bonds.
Ionic bonds involve loss of electrons by a metal. gain of electrons by a nonmetal.
Covalent Bonds involve a sharing of electrons.
Metals (Cations) Lose electrons, become positive, +1, +2, +3. Written first
Non-Metals (Anions) Gain electrons, become negative, -1, -2, -3. end with ide. Follows metal
2 ways to get an octet 1) Completele lose or gain e-(charged atoms-ions) Ionic. 2) Share a covalent.
Ionic compounds Formulas that contain (metals)(nonmetals). complete transfer of electrons. Electrostatic bond-opposite charge attract. Overall charge must be "0"
Naming Ionic Compounds with two elements Identify the cation and anion. Name the cation by its element name. Name the anion by using the first syllable of its element name followed by ide. Write the name of the cation first and the name of the anion second.
Fomula NaCl (NA+ Cl-) Sodium Chloride
Formula K2S (K+ S2-) Potassium sulfide
Formula MgO (Mg2+ 02-) Magnesium Oxide
Transition metals Two different ions use a Roman numeral after the name of the metal to indicate the ionic charge. Only Zinc, Silver, and Cadmium do not use a Roman Numeral because they form only one ion.
Naming Ionic Compounds with Variable Charge Metals Determine the charge of the cation from the anion. Name the cation by its element name and use a Roman numeral in parentheses for the charge. Name the anion by using the first syllable of its element name followed by ide.