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Periodic Law Vocab

Dmitri Mendeleev organized the first periodic table of elements
Lothar Myer organized one of the first periodic tables of elements (around the same time as Mendeleev, however Mendeleev’s was published first)
Periodic law the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
Periodic table display of the elements in order of atomic number with similar elements falling into columns
Noble Gas the column of elements from helium to radon (inert gases)
Lanthanides the row of elements beneath the periodic table, from cerium to lutetium; also called rare earths
Actinides the row of elements below the periodic table, from thorium to lawrencium
Periodicity regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table)
Period the elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table (series)
Family a vertical column in the periodic table (group)
Series the elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table (period)
Group a vertical column in the periodic table (family)
s-block elements elements in groups one-two (excluding H)
p-block elements elements in groups thirteen-eighteen (excluding He)
d-block metals elements in groups three-12
f-block metals elements 58-71 and 90-103
Alkali metals the metal in the first column of the periodic table
Alkaline Earth metals elements in the second column of the periodic table all fall into this series
metal elements that form cations when compounds of it are in solution and oxides of the elements form hydroxides rather than acids in water
transition metals the three rows of elements in the middle of the periodic table, from scandium to mercury
main-group or representative elements an element in the s-block or p-block
halogens the reactive nonmetals that are in Group 17 of the periodic table; all of these are electronegative
atomic radius radius of an atom; ½ the distance between two adjacent atoms in crystals of elements
bonding radius the distance between two bonded atoms
ionization energy the minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion
electron affinity how much something wants to pick up electrons; the amount of energy absored in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1-charge
valance electron an electron that is available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
cation a positive ion
anion a negative ion
ion an atom or group of bonded atom that has a positive or negative charge
atomic mass unit a unit of mass that is exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom, or 1.660540 x 10-27 kg
nonmetal an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
isotope atoms of the same element that have different masses
shielding effect radiation-absorbing material that is used to decrease radiation exposure from nuclear reactors
Created by: alexstw66



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