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In order for two molecules to react they must _____ Collide
_____ are collisions which result in a reaction taking place. Effective collisions
In order for collisions to be effective they must: Have a certain amount of minimum energy (energy of activation: Ea) and the collision must have a certain orientation.
The minimum energy with which reactants must collide with to produce a reaction is called the _____ Activation energy (Ea)
Reactions which give off heat are _____ Exothermic
Reactions that use heat are called _____ Endothermic
_____ are reactions which once started continue unaided Spontaneous reactions
Most _____ reactions are spontaneous Exothermic
Most reactions in the body are _____ Endothermic
A _____ is a substance which speeds up the rate of a reaction by lowering the energy of activation Catalyst/enzyme
_____ are biological catalysts. They lower the Ea by making sure the reacting molecules collide in the proper _____ Enzymes, orientation
The name given to biological reactants is _____ Substrate
An enzyme binds with its substrate at the _____ site Active
The _____ of the active site is the way in which an enzyme recognizes the correct substrate Shape
The term which indicates that an enzyme will only bind with certain substances is _____ Enzyme specificity
Absolute specificity An enzyme will bind with 1 and only 1 substrate
Group specificity An enzyme will bind with different reactants that have the same functional group
Linkage specificity An enzyme only binds with reactants that have a particular bond (glycosidic/peptide)
Stereochemical specificty An enzyme will only bind with reactant molecules of a certain class (monosaccharide/amino acids)and stereoisomeric category (D or L)
When an enzyme binds with its substrate it forms the _____ complex Enzyme-substrate
The high energy intermediate formed between the substrate and the product is called the _____ Transition state
The first part of the name of an enzyme refers to the _____ it binds with and the second part indicates the type of _____ it catalyzes. Specific substrate, reaction
A _____ is a non-protein group which must bind with some enzymes in order for the enzyme to function. Cofactor
Apoenzyme The polypeptide/protein portion of an enzyme that requires a cofactor
Apoenzyme An inactive enzyme that needs a cofactor in order to function
Cofactor A non-protein group that must attach to apoenzyme for the enzyme to function properly
Haloenzyme Complex formed by apoenzyme and cofactor. It is the functioning form of an enzyme.
Cofactors bind with enzymes to ensure that the _____ has the proper shape to bind with its substrate Enzyme
Cofactors are typically _____, _____, or _____ A heavy metal ion (Cu+2), an organometallic compound, or an organic compound
Coenzymes are similar to cofactors in that the enzyme they work with must bind with the coenzyme in order to be _____ Functional
Coenzymes are _____. They bring electrons or chemical groups needed for the reaction to the enzyme or remove electrons/chemical groups that are byproducts of a reaction away from the enzyme. Carriers
The most common coenzymes are _____. Water soluble vitamins
Like proteins, enzymes rely on their ____ to be functional Shape
If you alter the _____ of an enzyme it may lose its ability to work because of a change in the shape of the _____. Environment, activation site
Changing the ____ and/or temp. are two of the most common ways to denature an enzyme pH
Enzymes operate best at a specific pH and temp. These points are called the ____ pH and the ____ temp. Optimal, optimal
The ability to control when an enzyme is active or inactive is called enzyme _____. Regulation
Allosteric enzymes are enzymes with ____ binding sites. One of the binding sites is the ____ site and the other binds with a regulatory molecule called an ____ molecule. Multiple, active, effector
Effector molecules will alter the ____ of the enzyme's active site. Shape
If the effector molecule makes the active site active it is a ____ effector and if the effector makes the active site inactive it is a ____ effector. Positive, negative
_____ is a special form of negative feedback which is a form of allosteric regulation where the product of a reaction or reaction pathway acts as a negative effector to stop the reaction/pathway. Feedback inhibition
An enzyme which is initially formed in an inactive form and is later transformed to an active form is called a ____ Proenzyme
An ____ bonds/binds with an enzyme to render it unable to perform its function Inhibitor
An inhibitor which mimics the shape of the normal substrate of an enzyme and competes with the normal substrate for the active site is called a _____ Competitive inhibitor/structural analog
Catabolism The breakdown/degredation of large biological molecules
Chemical energy Energy that is stored in the bonds of molecules. It is a form of potential energy.
Pathway A linked series of biochemical reactions
____ is the primary source of energy for all biological reactions. ATP
The energy stored in ATP is stored in the high energy _____ bonds between the last two phosphate groups in the ATP molecule. Phosphoanhydride
The ultimate goal of the catabolic processes in the cells is to ____ the energy from the bonds of nutrient molecules and store that energy in ____ molecules Harvest, ATP
The energy of ATP is released by the _____ of the phosphoanhydride bond between the last two phosphate groups on the ATP. This requires the addition of ____ Hydrolysis/breaking, water
The primary nutrient class used to create ATP is ____ Carbohydrates
The first stage of the catabolism of carbohydrates which occurs in the mouth, stomach and small intestine is commonly called _____ Digestion (aka degradation/catabolism/hydrolysis)
The first stage of the catabolism of carbohydrates is to break down ____ into ____ Complex carbs, glucose
The monosaccharide which is the end product of the first stage of catabolism of a carbohydrate is ____ Glucose
The glucose formed in stage I is used in the ____ pathway which is stage II of the catabolic process Glycolysis
The 3 main products of glycolysis are: 4 ATP, NADH, 2 pyruvate molecules
Glycolysis is an ____ pathway and requires no O2. Anaerobic
Glycolysis provides energy for ___ term ____ intensity activity. Short, high
____ is the product of glycolysis which will eventually enter the ____ cycle to produce a lot of ATP CoA (or pyruvate), citric acid
____ is the product of glycolysis which will enter the ____ chain and also produce more ATP. NADH, electron transport
Allosteric enzymes are the main regulators of glycolysis. ____ acts as a positive effector and ____ acts as a negative effector in the glycolysis pathway. ADP, ATP *ADP is the only positive effector molecule
____ is the major storage form of glucose in cells. Glycogen
____ is the reaction which occurs to remove NADH and pyruvate so that glycolysis can continue to occur if more energy is needed for an anaerobic activity. Lactate fermentation
The product of the reaction of lactate fermentation is ____. This is sotred in the ____ and when its concentration is high enough the process of lactate fermentation stops and thus the reactions of ____ stop. Lactate, liver, glycolysis
Red blood cells and brain cells can only use ____ for storage by the process of ____ Glucose, glucoconeogenesis
Excess blood sugar is transformed into ____ for storage by the process of ____. Glycogen, glycogenesis
Aerobic respiration occurs in the cell organelle called the _____ Mitochondrion
The two pathways for aerobic respiration are the ____ and the _____. Citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
ATP is found in high desity in ____ muscles which are responsible for long term/low intensity aerobic activity. Slow twitch
____ muscles are responsible for short term/high intensity activity and have a relatively low concentration of stored ____ High twitch, ATP
To enter the citric acid cycle pyruvate must first be transformed into ____. Acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA consists of a two carbon ____ group made from pyruvate attached to a molecule called ____ which has a molecule of _____ vitamin in it. Acetyl, coenzyme A, pantothenic acid
____ and ____ are also broken down into acetyl CoA which can then enter the citric acid cycle and produce ATP Lipids and proteins
In addition to ATP, the final product of aerobic respiration is ____. Water
Aerobic respiration is essentially the complete ____ of pyruvate. Oxidation
Aerobic respiration is Stage ___ of the catabolism of carbohydrates. III
One intermediate product of the citric acid cycle is GTP. GTP is quickly converted to ___ ATP
NADH is a byproduct of some reactions in the citric acid cycle. The energy stored in NADH is transformed into ATP via the _____. Electron transport chain
FADH2 is also converted to ____ as part of the electron transport chain. ATP
Created by: iunomoneta