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Chapter 2

Matter and Change

What is the mass of an object? measure of amount of matter the object contains
What is the volume of an object? measure of space occupied by an object
What are properties that depend on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount? intensive properties
What are properties that depend on the amount of matter in a sample? extensive properties
What are examples of a intensive properties? characteristics of matter such as hardness, melting point, density
What are examples of extensive properties? outside factors determine extent of the property, mass/volume
What happens during a physical change? some properties of material change, but its composition doesn't change
What occurs during a chemical change? change produces matter with a different composition than original matter, composition of matter never changes
What are some examples of physical changes? water absorbed by a paper towel, and ice melting
What are some examples of chemical changes? grass growing, iron rust, and sodium hydroxide dissolving in water
What properties does a solid have and what do the particles do during molecular movement? definite shape and volume, particles are packed tightly together and very little movement (very high intermolecular interaction)
What properties does a liquid have and what do the particles do during molecular movement? indefinite shape, flows and has fixed volume, particles close in contact with one another and lots of movement (intermolecular interaction)
What properties does a gas have and what do the particles do during molecular movement? takes the shape and volume of its container, particles further apart and moving very fast at all times
What is a vapor? gaseous phase of a substance that is normally liquid at room temperature.
What is a mixture? a physical blend of two or more components
What is a solution? another name for a homogeneous mixture; consist of solutes dissolved in a solvent
What does a phase describe? any part of a sample with uniform composition and properties
What happens during filtration? a solid separates from a liquid in a heterogeneous mixture
What happens during distillation? a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is condensed into a liquid
What is the difference between a substance and a mixture? Substance- has uniform and definite composition, homogeneous Mixture- composition isn't uniform throughout, heterogeneous
How can a mixture be separated? through distillation and filtration
What is an element? one type of atom, simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties
What is a compound? two or more different atoms chemically combined in a fixed proportion
What is chemical symbol? a one or two letter representation of a element
What is a reactant? a substance present at the start of the reaction
What is a product? a substance produced in the reaction
What is a precipitate? a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture
What does the law of conservation of mass state? that in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved
Created by: dwigmans13