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Chem Grem Ch 4

Compounds $ Bonds

Octet Rule needs 8 valence electron to be stable. **atoms that are not noble gases form octets*** no noble gases(have no octet)
Ionic Bond Transfer(lose/gain) -> ("Attraction" betw opposite charged ions)
Covalent Bonds Sharing
Ionic Compound( ex. NaCl) has pos & neg ions, held together by strong attraction between opposite charged ions, high melting point,solids,
Subscripts represents the number of positve & negative electron that give overall charge of zero
Positive charge of ion equal to group number EX; group 1A= 1+, 2A= 2+
Ionic Formula pos & neg ions, neutral,has charge balance(total pos chrg= total neg chrg),symbol metal written first then non metal
write ionic formula Ba2+Cl- write symbol w/ions balance charges(2Cls needed) BaCl2
naming Ionic compounds w/2 elements Identify cation & anion, cation first, followed by anion w/ide ending.
6 form more than 1 type Ion Cr-Chromium, Fe-Iron, Cu Copper,Au gold,Sn-Tin,Pb-Lead
Non metal Ions (ionic comp w/2elements) when non metals are formed into ions, change the end name to "ide" Ex; NaCl= sodium Chloride
Metals that form more 1 cation C**Use roman numeral to name ionic charge*** Chromium Cr, Copper Cu, Iron Fe,Tin Sn,Lead Pb,Gold Au Ex; Copper(II)sulfide=Cu2S
Polyatomic Ions group of Atoms, has overall ionic charge, Ex: OH- Hydroxide NO-3= Nitrate
Covalent Compounds Electrons are shared,2non metals,groups 14-17, each atom has complete outer shell(octet) or duet(hydrogen)
Duet Hydrogen shell
Hydrogen Molecule stable w/2electrons(helium),has shared pr of electrons,
naming covalent compounds prefixes are used to name atoms
mono 1
Di 2.....
Tri 3.....
Tetra 4......
Pentra 5...
hexa 6....
hepta 7.....
octa 8....
nona 9....
deca 10
Electronegativity attraction for an atom of shared electron *increase left to right gng across period on periodic table,high nonmetals, Fuorine highest, low for metals
Non Polar Covalent Bonds *(0.0-0.4)**between non metals,unequal sharing electrons,no electronegativity
Polar Covalent Bond ***(0.5-1.7)****non metal,unequal share electrons
Properties of Ionic Bonds ****(1.8-higher)**** between metal & nonmetals, electron transfer
Tetrahedral shape 4 bonds
Prymadial 3 bonds
bent shape 2 bonds
Polar molecules has polar bonds,has separation w/pos & neg charge w/dipole
NonPolar Molecules contain non polar bonds or has symetrical arrangement( bonds that are identical) O=C=O H-H
Dipole Dipole attractions covalent & polar molecules, form strong bonds, F,O,N very electronegativity
Dispersion forces weak attractions between non polar molecules,temp dipoles develop w/electrons arent distributed equally
strongest/Hydrogen Ionic, Hydrogen are stronger than dipoles
Dipoles separation of positive & neg charges in polar bonds indicated by an arrow from more pos to neg atom
Dipole in polar covalent bond subtract number, higher number - sign lower number + sign
Created by: 1298518297



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