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Solutions *

part 2

factors that affect solubility properties of solute, properties of solvent, T, P,
What is the primarily attractive force between gas molecules and solvent? dispersion force
when does dispersion force increase? with increasing size and mass of molecules
solubility of gas molecules increase with what? increasing mass of gas molecules
higher than normal solubilities of gases are an indication of what? that a chemical reaction is occuring
interaction between polar solutes are what kind of force? dipole-dipole (or hydrogen bonds)
miscible liquid that mix
immiscible liquids that do not mix
is ethanol miscible in water? yes, because the attractive force betwn ethanol molecules include hydrogen bonds, like the force betwn. water molecules
is octane miscible in water? no, because attractive force betwn. octane molecules include dispersion forces, not hydrogen.
can carbon group participate in hydrogen bonding? no, only dispersion force
true or false: substances with similar IAF tend to be soluble in one another true
kinetic energy increases with what? increasing temperature
does increasing temperature reduce the solubility of gas molecules in a solvent? yes, because gas molecules with enough KE can escape from the surface of a liquid. KE increase with increasing T.
Kinetic Molecular Theory if we increase T of a gas, then more gas molecules strike the container in a given amount of time
does increasing the P make gas more soluble? yes, because higher P result in more collisions of gas molecules, per unit time, with the solvent
why does increasing T increases the solubility of solid solutes? increase T means increase KE. KE of of solute molecules favors separation of solute molecules. Increase KE of solvent molecules allows them to separate the solute molecules easier.
coligative properties efects upon the physical properties of water. This result when solutes like NaCl is added to water and can decrease water's freezing T, and increase water boiling T.
what does colligative properties depend upon? the # of solute particles in a solution
what are non-volatile ions? Give examples ions that does not go into the vapor phase. Na+ and Cl- are examples
Raoult's Law the vapor P of the solute-containing solution is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent times the mole fraction of the solvent
ideal solution obeys what law? Raoult's Law
does adding solute lower or higher the vapor pressure? lower
is boiling point proportional to molality or molarity? molality, beccause molality gives info. about the # of moles of solute per mole of solvent. BP is proportional to # of solutes particles per mole of solvent molecules.
does adding a solute lower of raise the melting point of an aqueous solution? lower
the freezing poing temperature is proportional to what? molality
semi-permeable membranes membrane of materials (like cellophane and biological membranes) that have tiny pores that are large enough to allow solvent like water to pass across the membrane, but not the passage of larger solute molecules
osmotic pressure pressure pi. this pressure offsets the flow of the solvent. this pressure behaves like pressure in the ideal gas equation
osmotic pressure (pi) =? molarity*R*T
isotonic two solutions with equal osmotic pressures
hypotonic if a solution has a lower osmotic pressure than another
hypertonic if a solution has a higher osmotic pressure than another
increase in boiling point = ? molality of the solute * molal BP elevation constant Kb (unique for each solvent)
the decrease in freezing poing temperature = ? molality of the solute * molal freezing point depression constant Kf (unique for each solvent)
molal concentration # of moles of solute per kg of solvent
Created by: Tiffastic