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Definitions Ch 7

Exam 3

Combination (Synthesis) reactions 2 simpler substances make a more complex compound
Chemical Reactions 1. Combination 2. Decomposition 3. Single replacement 4. Double replacement 5. Neutralization 6. Combustion 7. Reduction- oxidation
Metal oxide Reaction Metal heated w oxygen gas. Ex. magnesium oxide
Non metal + O Reaction nonmetal + O = nonmetal oxide S + O = Sulfur dioxide (Binary Molecular Comp)
Metal + nonmetal Reaction Make ionic compounds.Ex. sodium chloride Fixed charge (predictable) Transition (not predictable)
Decomposition single compound breaks into simpler substances. Need heat or light. Ionic with O = metal & O
Carbonate decompositions Metal hydrogen carbonates = metal carbonate + water + carbon dioxide Metal carbonates = metal oxide + carbon dioxide
Activity Series Sequence of metals arranged accorging to their ability to undergo a reaction. (First the most reactive) A metal that displaces another metal because it is more active. (Better opponent). Ex metal that displaces another metal in a replacement reaction
Activity Series list Li, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, Na, Mg, ,Al, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, (H), Cu, Ag, Hg, Au
Single replacement reaction More active metal takes the place of a less active metal in a compound. If metal is before another metal in the activity series= displacement will occur
Aqueous Acid Displacement Precede H = metal will react with acid Follow H= NR
Active Metals Metals that are active enough to react directly with water to make metal hydoxide + hydrogen gas Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba Li,
Solubility Rules (Only solubles in water) Compounds that have: 1. alkali metal ions (Li, Na, K, ammonium ion) 2. acetate ion 3. nitrate ion 4. halide ions (Cl, Br, I); no helide compounds (Ag,mercury I, Pb II) 5. Sulfate ion; no sulfate compounds with (Sr, Ba, Pb II)
Double replacement reaction 2 ionic compounds aq that switch anions and make 2 new compounds If 1 of the products is is insoluble a predictable ppt will form (In this case NR)
Precipitation reaction This happens in double displacement reactions if 1 of the products is insoluble in water
Total Ionic Equation Expresses strong acids,bases, and soluble ionic compounds as ions. AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) → AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) + NO3-(aq)
Ionization lets us see ionic solutions more accurately by showing strong electrolytes in their ionized form
Net Ionic Equation Shows only the components involved with the reaction
Spectator Ions They appear in both sides of the equation They don't participate in the overall reaction
Writing Net Ionic equation 1. Complete and balance the nonionized equation 2. Convert the nonionized equation into the total ionic equation (electrolytes in ionized form and weak electrolytes, water and gases in nonionized form) 3. Cancell all spectators (NR if all gone)
Neutralization Reaction Reaction of an acid and a base Hx + BOH = Bx (salt)+ water [Products salt and water]
Acid substance that makes H+ ions in water (protons)Ex. Hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid
Base substance that makes OH- ions in water Ex. sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide
Salt ionic compound produced by an acid-base reaction
Combustion reactions involve oxygen and make energy (heat) so that a flame results
Oxidation Reduction (Redox reaction) Transfer of e- from one substance to another. Ex. reactions of metal + nonmetal (synthesis) Combustion and single replacement reactions Total e- lost = total e- gained
How Oxidation-Reduction reactions work 4 Fe(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Fe2O3(s) Iron loses electrons and is oxidized. Fe → Fe3+ + 3 e- Oxygen gains electrons and is reduced. O2 + 4 e- → 2 O2-
Oxidation Number how many e- have been lost or gained
7 Rules for oxidation numbers 1. mt or nonmt in free state= 0 2. monoat I= its charge 3. Hydrogen I= +1 4. Oxygen I= -2 5. Molecular= more electronegative element has a negative charge equal to its charge as anion 6. Ionic comp: sum of ox #s = 0 7. Poly I =sum of ox #s = poly ch
Oxidized Losing electrons
Reduced Gaining electrons
oxidation agent substance that causes oxidation by accepting e-. The oxidizing agent is reduced
Reducing agent substance that causes reduciton by donating e-. The reducing agent is oxidized
Classification Summary Chemical Reactions ~Reduction-oxidation Reactions Synthesis (Combination) Decomposition Single Replacement Combustion ~Double Replacement Precipitation Reactions Acid-Base (Neutralization)
Molecular equation shows the complete formulas of all reactants and products.
Created by: lesliemelissa19