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Which of the following statements about learning is not true? is another word for maturation, is relatively permanent, involves changes in behavior, involves experience is another word for maturation
Ed noticed that whenever he used his electric can opener, his car would come into the kitchen and act hungry . He reasoned that bc he used the can opener to open the cat food the sound of the can opener had become an conditioned stimulus
Which of the following about conditioning is false, according to Pavlov? the CS & UCS must come close together in time, the CS must come immediatly after teh UCS, the neutral stimulus and UCS must be paired several times before conditioning takes place The CS must come immediately after the UCS
The prolgue is about Stephanie's fear of white coats as a child. The fact that shw was not only afraid of white coats worn by Drs and nurses but those also worn by photographers is an example of: stimulus generalization
when a conditioned response briefly reappears after it has been extinguished, this is called stimulus generalization
when a condtioned response briefly reappears after it had been extinguished, this is called spontaneous recovery
the use of a strong CS to create a seconf CS is called higher-order conditioning
In Watson's experiment with "little albert" the unconditioned stimulus was the loud nois
ofterpeople with certain types of cancer must take chemotherapy. The drugs used in these treatments are powerful and usally cause strong nausia reactions. If Cinday had eggs for breakfast and then took chemo later that same moring, what might we predict cindy will probably get nausuated the next time she tries to eat scrambled eggs
your pet parakeet eats some cooked spaghetti noodles, Later the poor bird gets very ill. WQhat will the research on biological prepareedness predict the parakeet will probably not eatlinguini noodles bc they are long and thing and look similar to spaghetti
the fact that the CS must come immediately before the UCS, and not after, os a problem for the ____ theory of why classical conditioning works stimulus substitution
Rescorla found that CS must _______tge UCS for condtioning to take place predict
cognition refers to the mental events tthat take place while a person is hevaing
in Tolman's maze study the fact tat the group of rats recieving reinforcement only after the tenth day of the study solved the maaze far more quickly than did the rats who had been reinforced from the first day can be interpreted to mean that these rats had already learned the maze in the first nine days
Seligman found many similarities btw his "helpless" dogs and people suffering from depression
Kohler determined that Sultan's two-stick solution to the banana problem was an example of insight bc it was sudden and rapid
in Bandura's study w/the Bobo doll, the children in the group that saw the model punished did not imatatte the model at first. They would only imatate the model if given a reward. the fact that the children learned the behavior w/o performing is an exampl letent learning
learning is any permanent change in behavior brought about by experience
a child has been classically conditioned to fear a while rat. if the child also shows fear when shown a while rabbit, this is called stimulus generalization
you move out of your dorm into an apartment shared w/3 other people. Thi shower does not turn cold when the toliet is flushed, and you eventually stop cringing everytimeyou hear the flushing sound. What hasoccured? extinction
when one conditioned stimulus is used to crate another, this is called higher-order condtioning
Tenia ate out w/some friends and had friend oysters. The next morning she was sick for most of the day. The next time she saw someone eating fried oysters, she felt quesy and wuickly looked away. her quesiness at the sight of fried oysters was due to a condtioned taste aversion
the fact thatsome kinds of stimuli are more easily and wuickly connected to a response is explained by the concept of biological preparedness
the key to the cognitive perspective of classical conditioning is that the presentation of the conditioned stimulusmust provide information about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, the ____are important in learning but in operant conditioning, it is the ______that determine whether learning will occur antecendents, consequences
who added the concept of reinforcement to learning theory Skinner
which of the following is an exaple of secondary reinforcer? candy bar, glass of water, petting a dog, praising a child praising the child
Sherry wants her dog on heel on comand. At first she gives the dog a treat for coming to her when she speaks the comand. The only rewards the dog when is stands at her side when given the comand, then when facing front. What is she using shaping
1yr old ben learned to say the word duck when his mother showed him a duck in their back yard. That evening he sees a cartoon roster and says "duck". ben is exhibiting generalization
for every ten boxes of cookies that lisa sells, her scout troop gets a dollar, Lisa is being reinforced on what schedule fixed ratio
Liz failed her math test, so her parents told her that shoe cold not play video games until her grades improve. her parents are using punishment by removal
punishmen more effective, it should be paired with reinforcement of the correct behavior
in applied behavior ananlysis skills are broken down into their smallest steps and then reinforced
Jody has had a repteaded failure at asking guys out. Finally she gives up. one day at the office a realy nice guy seems interesedt in her but she refuses to even approach him, what concept explains her reluctance learned helplessness
Eldon has just finished an essay test and handed it in, As he walks out of the classroom he realizes that there were a few more things she should have included. Eldon's problem is in the memory process of retrievel
when Edie studies her psychology terms, she tries to tie each concept in to something tha she already knows. which model of memory would best explain Edie's approach to encoding memeories? levels of processing
long ago when a TV set was turned off it took a while for the last imagineto fade away, This is most liek ionic memory
which type of memory allows us to have meaningful converstations? echonic memory
Fethia learned her multiplication facts by repeating then over and over untl she had then memorized. Fethia was using what kind of rehersal? maintance
of the following, which is the most similar to the concept of long lern memory? a reloving door, a filing cabinet, a desk top, a computer keyboard a filing cabinet
ling-term memory are encoded in therms of visual imagines
which type of LTM is seldom lost by people with Alzeimer's disease? procedural
IN the game Who wants to be a Millionaire, people are asked a series of questions of general information, ranging in diffculty . The type of memory needed to acces the answer to these kinds of questions is semantic
the internet with its seires of links from on e site to many others is a good analogy for the organization of long-term memory
The best place to take your math exam to ensure good retrieval of math concepts is in the math classroom
sarah can remember naems of the 1st 2 people she was intro to at Ted's party & can remember the name of the last person she met but no one else's this is an example of the serial position effect
This quiz question makes use of which form of retrieval of memories? recognition
which of the following statements about Loftus's classic study is true? subjects either increased or decreased the number of demonstrators in an attempt to compromise their memory with the later false information
which of the following statements about flashbuls memories is false? they are usually accurate
The phenomenon of hindsight buas is an example of the ______of long-term memory constructive processing view
In Loftus's study, subjects viewed a slide of an accident. Later some were asked a ? about a yeild sign when the pic actually had a stop sign.When the same subjects were later asked about what kind of sign was at the accident they were likely confused why misinformation effect
which of the following statements about memory retrieval while under hypnosis is true? people recalling memories under hypnosis are more confident in their memories, reguardless of accuracy
Pezdek and collegues found that for a person to interpret thoughts and fantasies about false events as true memories the event must be seen as plausible as possible
Salcatore was introduced to a # of new people on his 1st day at work. According to Ebbinghaus when should he expect to have forgotten the greatest # of the names he has just learned? within the first hour after learning the names
when a person "forgets" what someone has just said bc he wasn't paying attention to the speaker at all, it's an example of the _____explanation of forgetting encoding failure
decay theory works well to explain forgetting in sensory memory and short-term memory
Edna took sociology in the fall and is now taking psych. some of the concepts are similar and she sometimes has trouble recalling someof the theorist. She confuses them w/psych theoriest. Edna's problem is most likely due to retroactive interference
Brain went from the US, where he grew up, to England. The first week he was there he had a terrible time remembering to drive on the left side of the road, His problem is most likely due to proactive interference
The physical trace of memory in the brain is called the engram
Katherine is rying to hold the names of the students she just met in psych class in short-term memory. according to studies, these short-term memories will be stored in what part of the brain? prefrontal lobes
research suggests that memory formation is a function of changes in the # of receptors sites, changes in the sensivity of the synapase, changes in the dendrites and protiens w/in neurons
the role of the_____ in the formation of new long-term memories was 1st made apparent in the case of H.M. a famous amnesic hippocampus
T.J was in a car accident & suffered a concussion. After he recovered he found that he could not rememeber the accident itself or the events of the morning leading up to it. What kinds of amnesia retrograde
Memory can best be described as an active system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
in the ______model of memory, memories are simultaneously created and stored across a mental network parallel distributed processing
Roberta looked up from her book realizing that Joaquin just said something to her. What was it? Oh, yes, he had just asked her out. Her ability to retrieve what he said is due to her echonic sensory memory
although Sperling found evidence that iconic memory lasts about 1/2 a sec, in reality info gets pushed out rather wuickly by newer info. evidence suggest that ionic memory really lasts about_____of a sec one quater
the duration of echonic memory is_____ than iconic memory, but its capacity is probably____ longer; smaller
when Greg tried to remember the name of his employer's hisband, the had trouble. At first he thought it might be Sandy or Cindy but finally realized it was Mandy. Greg's confusion is evidence that S-T memories are primarly encoded in____form acoustic
although the capacity of S-T memory is limited, more items can be held in this kind of storage throught the process of chunking
the best method for encoding long-term memories is probably to use elaborative rehearsal
The levels-of-processing concept of Craik and Lockhart would suggest that which of the following questions would lead to better memory of the word frog? does it rhyme w/blog, would it be found in a pond, is it written in cursive, is it in capital letters? would it be found in a pond
whic type of L-T mem is revised and updated more or less constantly? episodic
knowledge that we gain from school is called______memory semantic
the sematic network model of memory would suggest that which of the following ?s would take the longest to answer? is a colle a dog, is a collie a mammal, is a collie an animal is a collie an animal
the research of Eich & Metcalf would suggest that if you were realy angry when you were learning Spanish, you should be _____when taking the final exam for best retrieval angry
which of the following is NOT an example of a test using recall? short answer, essay, fill in the blank, true/false true-false
The serial position effect predicts that the information that will be remembered best froma list will come at the ______of the list beginning and the end
Melanie was having a difficult time describing the man who took her purse. The officer showed her some pics of people and she was quickly able to pick out the right man. this is a reminder that in comparing recognition to recall, recognition tends to be easier
is eyewitness testimony usually accurate? no bc there isa great possiblity of a "false positive" identification
the passage of time and frequency of events are exaples of knowledge that is often subject to automatic encoding
when retrieving a long-term memory, bits and pieces of information are gathered from various areas and put back together in a process called constructive processing
Ebbinghaus found that information is forgotten quickly at first, then tapering off gradually
a problem with using memory trace decay theory to explain forgetting from long-term memory is that older people can still remember things from their early years
you started out by using WordPerfect and then moved to Microsoft Word bc your company demanded that all documents be in Word. If you have trouble w/Word its most likely bc of proactive interference
The main type of memory problem that people with dementia inculding Alzheimer's typically have is called anterograde amnesia
one theory that explains infantile amnesia states that these memories are implicit and not retrievable consciously
Gingko biloba extract is supposed to help memory bc it increases the flow of blood to the brain
in a_____ design, several different age groups of participants are studied at one time cross-sectional
the design that combines the two other development designs is called cross-sequential
in the analogy of the rubber ladder, the sequence of amines would be represented by the _______ if the ladder rungs
Brandon has blue eyes, even though both his parents have brown eyes. What do we know about Brandon's parents? each of his parents must have one recessive blue eye color gene
which of the following is a disorder caused by having an extra chromosone? Tay-Sachs, PKU, cystic fibrosis, Down Syndrome Down Syndrome
The fertilized egg is called a zygote
which of the following statements about Abby and Britty Hensel is FALSE? they are able to coordinate their actions, they are remarkabley healthy, they could have been successfully seperated thye could have been successfully seperated
the first two weeks of pregancy are called the ______period germinal
The period of pregnancy that contains the clearest examples of critical periods os the ______period embryonic
mental retardation and blindness are possble outcomes of the effects of _____on the developing baby mercury
which sense is least functional at birth? vision
what is the first voluntary movement that allows an infant to get from one place to another? rolling over
which of the following statements concerning vaccination is false? most children today don't need vaccinations as the diseasess have been eliminated
in which of Piaget's stages would a child be who be who just developed object permanence sensorimotor
Vygotsky defines ______ as the difference btw what a child can do alone and what that child can do with help zone of proximal development
"Daddy go bye-bye" is an example of telegraphic speech
according to Thomas and Chess, a child that is very irregular in sleeping and eating, resist change, and is negative and loud is labled a(n)_____child difficult
what kind of attachment, according to Ainsworth, is shown by a baby who explores the room, gets upset when the mother leaves but is easily soothed, and is happy to see the mother when she returns? secure
mothers who were abusive or neglectful were associated with the______type of attachment disorganized/disoriented
in Erkison's______stage of psychosocial development, the child learns self control and begins to feel more capable initative versus guilt
which of the following statements about adolescence is FALSE? it begins w/the onset of puberty, it ends when puberty is complete, it is a time of preoccupation w/one's own thoughts it ends when puberty is complete
which term refers to the feeling of being unique and pretected personal fable
according to Kohlberg, most adolescents are at the____level or morality conventional
according to Erikson, the task of the adolescent is to find a consistent sense of self
which of the following issues typically creates alot of conflict btw most teens and their parents? trivial issues of hair, clothing, and music choices
the period of 5-10 years during which a woman's reproductive system begins to decline is called perimenopause
which of the following has not been shown to help maintain a healthy level of cognitvie functioning? working a crossword puzzle, reading, going to plays, sedentary lifestyle sedentary lifestyle
Today's worker may change careers as many as______times.; five to seven
according to Erikson, achieving true intimacy is difficult if one's______is not already established identity
In Erikson's last crisis, the life review is looking back on the life one has lived
a sense of completeness of one's ego, or identity, is called integrity
according to research, if an older person wants to adjust more postively to aging, he or she should remain active in some way
in which theory of aging do telomeres become the major means of aging cells? cellular lock theory
in the____stageof reaction to death and dying, a person may promise to do everything the dr says if the dr will say that the person can live longer bargaining
differences btw age groups would cause the most serious problem for which developmental reseach method? cross-sectional
Cystic fibrosis is a____disorder if a person has one gene for the disease but does not have cystic fibrisos recessive
in_____syndrome, the 23rd paris of chromosomes is missing an X, resulting in short, infertile females Turner's
which of the following represents dizygotic twins> one egg is fertilized by 2 different sperm, 2 eggs get fertilized by 2 different sperm, 2 eggs are fertilized by the same sperm 2 eggs ger fertilized by 2 different sperm
the sponglike organ that provides nourishment for the growing baby and filters away waste productsis called the placenta
the critical period for pregnacy is the embryonic period
MAry's baby was born w/a smaller than normal head, some facial malformations, and is mentally retarded. Mary most likely_____during her early pregnacy drank alcohol
which of the following is NOT a risk associated with failing to have a child immunized? the child may become immune to the disease, the child may get a deadly disease like measles, others may be exposed to the disease the child develops the child may become immune to the disease
in the____reflex, the baby moves its head towards any light touch to its face rooting
which of the newborn's sense is the most fully developed at birth? touch
at what age can the typical infant sit w/o support? 6 months
by the age of 5, the brain is at_____percent of its adult weight 90
in which of Piaget's stages does the child become capable of understanding conservations? concrete operational
according to Vygotsky, giving a child help in the formof asking leading questions and providing examples is called scaffolding
as children grow from the preschool years into middle childhood, the big changes in the capacity of S-T mem are the most likely due to an increase in the use of control strategies
Like Kashif held his empty cup up to his mother and said "milk" his use of this word is lable a holophrase
as an infant, Liz never liked change, but if you introduced new things gradually she will eventually accept them w/o too much fuss. Liz is most likely slow to warm up
in the Strange Situation,______babies were clinging, unwilling to explore, very upset when Mom left the room, and demanded to be held but pushed her awa at the same time when she returned ambivalent
In Erikson's crisis of_____, children are developing a sense of competence and self-esteem industry verse inferiority
Brandon, @age3, noticed that only girls seemed to play w/things that were pink and not the boys. Now he refuses to let his mom take him down the isle that has dolls. When asked why he says"bc they are all pink and pink is for girls"this is explained by gender scheme theory
Samantha refuses to goto school bc her chin has a "huge" pimple on it and she is afraid that everyone will laugh at her and point. Samantha is a victim of the imaginary audience
Erikson's 5th stage of psychosoical develepment is identity versus role confusion
Vision and hearing begin to decline in the thirties
a decline on testosterone in the midtwenties is called andropause
The crisis of middle adulthood, according to Erikson, is generaticity versus stagnation
Collagen, an elastic tissue that becomes less elastic as we get older, is a good example of the ______theory of aging wear and tear
according to Kubler-Ross, when bargaining fails,______usually results depression
which of the following statements about adult ADHD is true?the symptoms of ADHD in adulthood is similar to those in children, ADHD adults rarely need any treatment at all, chidren w/ADHD almost always grow out of it by adulthood the symptoms of ADHD in afulthood are similar to those in children
mental imagines have a picture like quality
knowing that the definition of psychology is the scientific study of behavor and the mental processes is an example of formal concept
a "rule of thumb" is another name for a heuristic
what type of problem-solving strategy would be best to use when solving a problem in algebra class? algorithm
The main difference btw the Al programs Deep Blue and Deep Junior is that Deep Blue used_____whereas Deep Junior was programmed to use_____ heuristics; algorithms
when a problem is seen as having only one answer, with all the lines of thinking leading to that answer, this is known as_____thinking converegent
which of the following statements about creative people is TRUE? they are not very good at mental imagery, the are not afraid to be different, they value ther dependance on others they are not afraid to be different
using the Stanford-Binet IQ formula, what IQ would a person whose mental age is 10 and whose chronological age is 15? 67
Darla is 4yrs old. The intelligence test that would most likely be used to determine her IQ is the WPPSI-III
Professor Becket desgined an IQ test. To standardize this test, the professor should be careeful to do which of the following select the people in the sample from the population of people for whom the test is designed
______would be the problem in a est that provides a consistent score for some people each time it si administered but yields different scores for other people reliability
Jarod is 35yrs old but his mind has never gone beyond the lever of a 2nd grader. Jarod would be classified as______developmentally delayed moderately
A males with a mild developmental delay that becomes more severe as he ages probably suffers from fragile X syndrome
Elizabeth was tested while in grade school and was found to have an IQ of 134. Elizabeth's intellegence can be labled as gifted
which of the following statements about the successful "Termintes" in the Terman and Oden study is not true? the successful men earned more money, the unsuccessful men held jobs of lower prestige, the successful men were more liekly to be divorced the successful men were more likely to be divorced
according the Spearman, a traditional IQ tst would most likely measure general intellegence
in Gardner's view, astronats, navigators, and artists would be high in_______intellegence visual/spatial
Sternberg has found that_______intellegence is a good predictor of succss in life but has a low relationship to____intellegence practical, academic
which of the following was NOT on of the erros of the authors of the The Bell Curve? they assumed that heritability applied only to differences within groups of people
the system of rules for combining words and phrases to make meaningful sentences is called syntax
grammar includes all bu which of the following aspects of language? tone, sounds, order, meaning tone
the sounds of the letters b, z, c, and d are examples of phonemes
The Dani have only two words for colo yet can distinguish btw many different colots, This finding supports that language theory of Lucy and Shweder
The quality of language prodiced by animals cannot yet compare to the leve achieved by a ______human 3 year old
mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is processing information is called thinking
concepts that are formed as a result of everyday expeiences, whic are not always well defined are know as_____concepts natural
algorithms are a type of____ mechanical solution
the____heuristic can be used to creat and maintain stereotypes representative
which of the following artificial intellegence programs was able to beat world class chess champ Garry Kasparov Deep Blue
when people pesis in trying to solve a problem the same way they have always fone about solving problems, they have developed a mental set
which of the following questions would be more liekly to produce divergent thinking? What is a stapler, how do you spell stapler, how many uses can you think of for a stapler how many uses can you think of for a stapler
which of the following is NOT part of the definition of intelligence? ability to adapt, ability to be creative, ability to solve problems, abaility for use resources effectively ability to be creative
Keneisha is only 11yrs old but she can answer questions that most 15 yr olds can answer. 15 is Keneisha's mental age
which of the following makes the Wechler test different from the Stanford-Binet the Wechler provides both a verbal and a performance score
a test that is gives similar scores for a person each time the person takes it is cinsidered to be a ______test. reliable
when a test allows a person from one particular background to have an unfair advantage over persons from other backgrounds, its called culturally biased
in familial retardation, the degree of retardation is typically mild
Denny has a flat upper lip, wide-set eyes,and problems w/his heart in addition to being mildly retarded, Denny is most likely suffering from fetal alcohol syndrome
in Terman's study of gifted children, social and heavioral problems were found only in those is IQs og 180 or higher in childhood
according to Sternberg,"street smarts" is another way of talking about which kind of intellegence? practical
which type of intellegence, according to Sternberg, would most likely be measured bu traditional intellegence tests? analytical
Goleman has proposed that______intellegence is more powerful influence on success in ife than other forms of intellegence emotional
the current estimate of heritablity of intellegence is 0.50
the basic units of sound are called phonemes
the linguistic relatively hypothesis states that language shapes thoughts
which of the following is not one of the animals that has been tauight to use language with some success? chimps, parrots, dog, dolphin dog
state which of the following words is the most likely answer to the cryptic clue "part of a vechile's engine mistakenly ate ink" intake
Created by: ssloan84