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Part 1

Solutions are what kind of mixture? homogenous
What states can solution be in? gas, liquid, or solid
solvent he component in the solution with the highest concentration
condensed states the liquid states, and the solid states
What if the attractive force of solute molecules for other solute molecules are greater than the attractive forces of solute molecules for water? then the solute will not dissolve
What does the lattice energy describe? the attractive force between the solute molecules (like ions)
solvation process where the solute-solvent interactions are strong enough to separate, surround, and disperse a solute
hydration the solvation process where the solvent is water
enthalpy of solvation the process of solvation that involves energy changes. This is a physical process, not chemical
enthalpy of solvation 1: dispersing the solutes. It is the lattice energy
energy of solvation 2: water molecules have to separate from one another to provide the necessary space to accomodate the dispersed solutes
energy of solvation 3: energy associated with the formation of solvent-solute intearction
separating the solute molecules from each other is endothermic or exothermic? endothermic
disrupting solvent-solvent interaction to allow space for dispersed solute molecules is endothermic or exothermic? endothermic
formation of solvent-solute inteaction is endothermic or exothermic? exothermic
Process in which the overall heat energy of the system decreases tend to be what? spontaneous (example: a negative value for the overall heat change indicates spontaneity)
processes in which the disorder of the system increases tend to be what? spontaneous
entropy the degree of disorder
high entropy is what? disordered
low entropy is what? ordered
concentrated solution solute is present in high concentration
diluted solution where the solute is present in low concentration
ppm stands for? parts per million
ppb stands for? parts per billion
the density of diluted aqueous soltuion can be assumed to be equal to the density of what? pure water
1.0 L of diluted aqueous solution has a mass of what? 1000 g
the sum of mole fractions of all components in a solution (including the solution itself) must equal 1.0
molality (m) moles of solute / kilograms of solvent component
crystallization collision of dispersed ions with remaining crystals, resulting in an increase in the crystal mass
saturated a solution that is in dynamic equilibrium with undissolved solute
Created by: Tiffastic