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Lab 3- Hyrdocarbons

Chem II Lab - spring 2011

Hydrocarbon organic compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon atoms
Chain Aliphatic Hydrocarbons compounds consisting of carbons linked either in a straight chain or in a branched chain
Cyclic Hydrocarbons aliphatic compounds that have carbon atoms linked in a closed paragon (aka ring)
Alkanes hydrocarbons which contain only carbon-carbon single bonds
Saturation of Hydrocarbons Alkane- saturated Alkene- unsaturated Alkyne- unsaturated
Alkene hydrocarbons which contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond
Alkyne hydrocarbons which contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond
Aromatic cyclic hydrocarbons that contain a closed loop (sextet) of electrons
Hydrocarbons vs. Polar Solvents hydrocarbons do not mix with polar solvents such as water or ethyl alcohol, but will mix with other organic non-polar solvents
Density of Hydrocarbons density of hydrocarbons is less than water, therefore hydrocarbons float
Solubility of Hydrocarbons hydrocarbons are not soluble in hemicawater
Chemical Reactions of Hydrocarbons Combustion, Reaction with Bromine, Reaction with Sulfric Acid, and Reaction with Potassium Permangante
Combustion All hydrocarbons participate in combustion, resulting in CO2 and O2 as products. Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes burn with a yellow non-sooty flame. Aromatic burns with a black sooty flame.
Reaction with Bromine Alkanes do not react.(addition rxn) Alkenes break their double bond and replace with 2 Bromines. Alkynes break their triple bonds and replace with 4 Bromines. **Brown-red to colorless rxn**
Aromatic Reaction with Bromine aromatics undergoes a substitution reaction with Bromine in the presence of an Fe or AlCl3 catalyst.
Reaction with Sulfuric Acid (addition rxn) Alkanes and Aromatics do not react. Alkenes break double bonds and replace with H and HSO4. Alkynes does the same but slower and in the presence of HgSO4. **cold to warm rxn**
Reaction with Potassium Permanganate Alkanes, Alkynes and Aromatics do no react. Alkenes break their double bonds and replace with two OH and produces MnO2 and KOH. **purple to brown rxn (Alkene forms a glycol)
Created by: tmg1116



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