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Definitions Ch 4

Introductory Chemistry by Zumdahl CHM 1025 VCC

Element symbols Abbreviation for the chemical elements
Law of constant composition A given compound always contains elements in exactly the same proportion by mass. A compound is always organized in the same way by mass.
Dalton's atomic theory 1. Elements are made up of atoms. 2. All atoms for an element are identical (same properties). 3. Compounds: atoms from different elements combined. They always have the same # and types of atoms 4. Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes.
Compound Substance composed of the atoms of 2 or more elements
Chemical Formula The types and how many atoms are present in a molecule
Electrons Negatively charged particles found in an atom. Smaller than neutrons and protons. -1
Nuclear atom An atom with dense center of positive charge (nucleus) that is surrounded by electrons.- Rutherford
Nucleus Dense center of positive charge (protons and neutrons). Center of an atom.
Proton Positively charged particle. +1
Neutron Bigger than a proton (no charge)
Isotopes atoms w the same # of protons but different numbers of neutrons (different mass). Ex Carbon-14 14/6 C
Atomic Number The # of protons in a nucleus. Z
Mass Number Neutrons + protons. A
Periodic table Shows all the known elements and gives information about them.
Groups Families of elements with similar chemical properties that lie in the same vertical column.
Alkali metals Group 1- column
Alkaline earth metals Group 2 of elements
Halogens Group 7 of elements
Noble gases Group 8 of elements
Transition metals Large collection of elements
Metals 1. Conductors of electricity and heat 2. Malleable (can be hammered into thin seets) 3. Ductile (can be pulled into wires) 4. Lustrous (shiny)
Non metals All the opposite of metals
Metalloids or semimetals Have metallic and nonmetallic properties
Diatomic molecules Molecules made up of 2 atoms. Ex. H, O, N, Cl, F, Br, I.
Ion Entity with a positive or negative charge. Opposite charges attract and become neutral 3D array (cations surrounded by anions)
Cation Positive ion= metals that lose electrons
Anion Negative ion= nonmetals that gain electrons
Ionic Compounds Compound formed getween a metal and a nonmetal. It must have a net charge of zero. Ex Na+ Cl-
Compound Combination of elements
Molecule Particle composed of 2 or more nonmetal atoms. Simplest particle of a binary molecular compound
Atom Tiny particles that compose elements
Plum pudding model Electrons were evenly distributed among a homogeneous sphere of + charge- Thomson
Atomic notation tells the # of p+ and N in the nucleus of an atom
Created by: lesliemelissa19



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