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Chem- Chapter 4

Democritus' ideas nature's basic particle was the atom; atoms physically resembled the matter it made
Aristotle's ideas matter could be infinitely divided; matter was made of some combination of elements (earth, water, fire, air)
Dalton's Modern Atomic Theory the elements are composed of atoms & only whole numbers of atoms can combine and form compounds
Modifications to the Modern Atomic Theory atoms are divisible; an element can have atoms with different masses
Subatomic Particles the proton, neutron, & electron
Anatomy of an atom nucleus + electron cloud; mostly empty space, mass of atom is in the nucleus
J.J Thomson discovered the electron with his cathode ray tube experiment in 1897
Cathode Ray Experiment Cathode rays were shot through an atom, which registered negatively charged particles.(Cathodes are deflected by a magnetic field and the rays are deflected from negatively charged objects)
Robert Millikan Measured the exact value of the negative charge with his oil drop experiment in 1909
Thomson's atomic model "plum pudding" model, electrons stuck in a mound of positive charge
Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus with his gold foil experiment in 1911
Gold foil experiment Alpha particles were shot through a sheet of gold foil
Expected gold foil experiment outcome Alpha particles pass through, slightly deflected by the positive charge spread throughout the atom
Actual gold foil experiment outcome Most particles went straight through, some were deflected, very few bounced back at large angles
Rutherford's atomic model "nuclear atom" model, tiny positively charged nucleus with electrons floating outside of it
James Chadwick discovered neutrons in 1932
Atom the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element
Created by: cdye13



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