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STAT chapt 3

QuestionAnswer
cross–tabulation table an arrangement of data in a two–way classification.
input variable the variable we know or can control.
least squares criterion requires finding the constants b0 (y–intercept) and b1 (slope) such that the sum of the squares of observed minus predicted values is as small as possible.
line of best fit a line whose equation represents the smallest possible differences between the squares of observed minus predicted values on a line
linear correlation the strength of a linear relationship between two variables, determined by the preciseness of shift in y as x increases.
linear regression the straight line that best describes the relationship between two variables
lurking variable a variable that is not included in a study but has an effect on the variables of the study and makes it appear that those variables are related.
negative correlation a correlation in which an increase in x leads to a decrease in y.
ordered pairs a mathematical expression (x, y) where x is the input variable written first, and y is the output variable written second.
output (dependent) variable the predicted variable.
Pearson’s product moment formula the formula that determines the coefficient of linear correlation (r).
positive correlation a correlation in which an increase in x leads to an increase in y.
predicted value the value of y calculated by modeling a particular value of x with a prediction equation.
prediction equation an equation that models a mathematical relationship between x and y with an algebraic expression. Examples of prediction equations include linear (straight–line), quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic.
regression the algebraic expression that describes the relationship between two variables
regression analysis finds the equation of the line that best describes the relationship between the two variables under examination. That is, regression analysis describes the mathematical relationship between the two variables.
scatter diagram a plot of all the ordered pairs of bivariate data on a coordinate axis system.
slope, b1 the ratio of the rise over the run (horizontal distance) of a line. In the equation for a line of best fit, the slope is denoted b1.
Created by: empire2311