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# February 15

### Discussion of How Atoms are Arranged (Chapter 4) Robert Fuel

Which form of energy exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space? Electromagnetic radiation
What do all the forms of electromagnetic radiation form? The Electromagnetic spectrum
Define Wavelength. Wavelength is the the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves.
Define Frequency Frequency is the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second.
What is the wavelength of Visible Light? Visible light is elctromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of 400-750nm.
What is the velocity of all electromagnectic radiation in a vacuum? 300000 kilometers per second
photoelectric effect=the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal.
quantum =the minimum quanity of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom.
Planck’s Constant =E=hv it is the h. it is a fundamental physical constant.
Photon =a particle of electromagnetic radiation that has zero rest mass and carries a quantum of energy.
Energy of a Photon=6.5 x 1014 Hz
Ground State=the lowest energy state of an atom.
Excited State=a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state.
Line=emission spectrum-a series of specific wavelengths of emitted light created when the visible portion of light from excited atoms is is shined through a prism.
continuous spectrum = the emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
Bohr radius= Atomic fundamental physical constant used as atomic unit of length
Interference=This occurs when waves overlap.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle=it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle.
Quantum Theory or Quantum Mechanics=a mathematical description of the wave properties of electrons and other small particles.
Orbital =a three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron.
Quantum numbers=a number that specifies the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals.
Principle Quantum number (n)=the quantum number that indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron.
Angular momentum quantum number (l )=the quantum number that indicates the shape of the orbital.
Magnetic quantum number (m)=the quantum number that indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus.
Spin quantum number (s)=the quantum number that has only two possible values, +1/2 and -1/2, which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in orbital.
Aufban Principle=an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it.
Electron Configuration =the arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Pauli Exclusion Principle=no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantom numbers.
Hund’s Rule=orbital of equal energy are occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupies orbitals must have the same spin.
Valence Electron =an electron that is available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds.
Inner-shell electrons=an electron that is not in the highest occupied energy level.
Highest occupied level =the electron containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number.
Noble Gas Configuration= an outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cses, by eight electrons.
s sublevel or sub-orbital =An “s” orbital occurs alone,The shape of an “s” orbital is spherical
p sublevel or sub-orbital=The shape of a “p” orbital is like a dumbbell, they are two lobes arranged along a straight line with the nucleus between the lobes
f sublevel or sub-orbital -=hey occur in group of seven,These orbitals have complex shapes
Created by: rjfuell