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Ch4 vocabulary


Electromagnetic radiation-a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels trough space
Electromagnetic spectrum-all the forms of electromagnetic radiation
Wavelength-the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
Frequency-the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second
Visible Light-Electromagnetic radiation in this range of wavelengths
Velocity of a wave-
photoelectric effect-the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
quantum-the minimum quantity of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
Planck’s Constant-a physical constant reflecting the sizes of quanta in quantum mechanics 6.626068 × 10-34 m2 kg / s
Photon-a paricles of electromagnetic radiation that has zero rest mass and carries a quantum of energy
Energy of a Photon-depends on the frequency or the radiation
Ground State-the lowest energy state of an atom
Excited State- a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in it's ground state
Line-emission spectrum-a series of specific wavelengths of emitted light created when the visible portion of light from excited atoms is shined through a prism
continuous spectrum-the emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
Bohr radius-
Interference-The wave properties of light lead to interference, but certain conditions of coherence must be met for these interference effects to be readily visible
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle-it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle
Quantum Theory or Quantum Mechanics (same definition for both of these so list them together)-a mathematical description of the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles
Orbital-a three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable locationof an electron
Quantum numbers-a number that specifies the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
Principle Quantum number (n)-the quantum number that indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron
Angular momentum quantum number (l )-the quantum number that indicates the shape of the orbital
Magnetic quantum number (m) -the quantum number that indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus
Spin quantum number (s) -the quantum number that has only two possible values,+1/2 and -1/2,which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
Aufban Principle-an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it
Electron Configuration-the arrangement of electrons in an atom
Pauli Exclusion Principle-no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Hund’s Rule-orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin
Valence Electron-an electron that is available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
Inner-shell electrons-an electron that is not in highest occupied energy level
Highest occupied level-the electron-containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number
Noble Gas Configuration-an outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cases, by electrons
s sublevel or sub-orbital-n=1,in an nth main energy level there are n Sublevels
p sublevel or sub-orbital-n=2,,in an nth main energy level there are n Sublevels
f sublevel or sub-orbital-n=4,in an nth main energy level there are n Sublevels



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