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chapter 4 chem vocab


Electromagnetic radiation A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
Electromagnetic spectrum All forms of electromagnetic radiation
Wavelength The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
Frequency The number of waves that pass a specific point in a certain amount of time
Visible Light Electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual image that can be seen with the naked eye
Velocity of a wave Measure of the rate of change of a wave
Photoelectric effect The emission of an electron from a metal when light shines on the metal
quantum The minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
Planck’s Constant This relates the energy of a photon to the frequency of that photon. Its value is approximately 6.626 × 10 -34 joule-seconds
Photon A particle of electromagnetic radiation that has zero rest mass and carries a quantum of energy
Energy of a Photon The capability to transfer heat to a photon
Ground State Lowest energy state of an atom
Excited State A state where an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
Line-emission spectrum A series of specified wavelenghts of emitted light is separated into a series of specific frequencies of visible light
continuous spectrum Emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
Bohr radius The radius of the n=1 orbital in hydrogen
Interference Waves overlap which causes a reduction of energy in some areas and an increase in others
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle States it is impossible to determine the position and velocity of an electron or other particle
Quantum Theory or Quantum Mechanics (same definition for both of these so list them together) Describes wave properties of electrons and other particles
Orbital 3-D region around the nucleus and the probable place of an electron
Quantum numbers specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
Principle Quantum number (n) Indicates the main energy level occupied by electrons
Angular momentum quantum number (l ) Indicates shape of the orbital
Magnetic quantum number (m) Indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus
Spin quantum number (s) Indicates the two fundamental spin states of an electron in a orbital
Aufban Principle An electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it
Electron Configuration Arrangement of electrons in an atom
Pauli Exclusion Principle No two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Hund’s Rule Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbitals must have the same spin
Valence Electron the electrons of an atom that can participate in the formation of chemical bonds with other atoms
Inner-shell electrons Electrons that are not in the highest energy level
Highest occupied level The electron containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number
Noble Gas Configuration Outer main energy level fully occupied in most cases by 8 electrons
s sublevel or sub-orbital A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital
p sublevel or sub-orbital The orbital of an atomic electron with an orbital angular momentum quantum number of unity
f sublevel or sub-orbital corresponds to an electron orbital with angle momentum quantum number l = 3.
Created by: j.millsdar4