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Tanya Ch 4 Vocabulay

7th Period Vocabulary for Discussion of How Atoms are Arranged (Chapter 4) Tanya

Electromagnetic radiation a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
Electromagnetic spectrum all the forms of electromagnetic radiation
Wavelength the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
Frequency the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second
Visible Light part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is roughly in the middle of the whole spectrum and is used by most organisms to be able to see
Velocity of a wave product of wavelength and frequency
photoelectric effect the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
quantum the minimum quantity of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
Planck’s Constant fundamental physical constant; h
Photon a particle of electromagnetic radiation that has zero rest mass and carries a quantum of energy
Energy of a Photon Ephoton
Ground State the lowest energy state of an atom
Excited State a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
Line-emission spectrum a series of specific wavelengths of emitted light created when the visible portion of light from excited atoms is shined through a prism
continuous spectrum the emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
Bohr radius the radius of the s orbital in hydrogen
Interference waves overlapping that results in a reduction of energy in some areas and an increase of energy in others
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle
Quantum Theory or Quantum Mechanics a mathematical description of the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles
Orbital a three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
Quantum numbers numbers that specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
Principle Quantum number (n) the quantum number that indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron
Angular momentum quantum number (l ) the quantum number that indicates the shape of the orbital
Magnetic quantum number (m) the quantum number that indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus
Spin quantum number (s) the quantum number that has only two possible values, +1/2 and -1/2, which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
Aufban Principle an electron occupies the lowest- energy orbital that can receive it
Electron Configuration the arrangement of electrons in an atom
Pauli Exclusion Principle no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Hund’s Rule orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin
Valence Electron an electron that is available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
Inner-shell electrons electrons that are not in the highest occupied energy level
Highest occupied level the electron-containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number
Noble Gas Configuration an outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cases, by eight electrons
s sublevel or sub-orbital spherical shaped; only one sublevel is possible per n value
p sublevel or sub-orbital dumbbell shaped; three sub levels possible per p n value (x, y, z axis)
f sublevel or sub-orbital more complex shaped; seven sub levels possible per n value
Created by: sweett



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