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Ch. 4 Vocabulary

How Atoms are Arranged

Electromagnetic radiation A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space.
Electromagnetic spectrum All the forms of electromagnetic radiation.
Wavelength The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves.
Frequency The number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second.
Visible Light A kind of electromagnetic radiation.
Velocity of a wave 3.0 x 108 m/s
Photoelectric effect The emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal.
Quantum The minimum quantity of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom.
Planck’s Constant In the equation E = hv, h is the fundamental physical constant known as Planck’s Constant: h = 6.626 x 10-34 (J)(s).
Photon A particle of electromagnetic radiation that has zero rest mass and carries a quantum of energy.
Energy of a Photon Depends on the frequency of the radiation: Ephoton = hv.
Ground State The lowest energy state of an atom.
Excited State A state in which an atom has a higher potential energy that it has in its ground state.
Line-emission spectrum A series of specific wavelengths of emitted light created when the visible portion of light from excited atoms is shined through a prism.
Continuous spectrum The emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
Bohr radius An electron can circle the nucleus only in allowed paths, or orbits.
Interference Occurs when waves overlap.This overlapping results in a reduction of energy in some areas and an increase of energy in others.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle It is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron of any other particle.
Quantum Theory/Quantum Mechanics A mathematical description of the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles.
Orbital A three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron.
Quantum numbers Numbers that specify the properties of atomic orbitals an the properties of electrons in orbitals.
Principle Quantum number (n) The quantum number that indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron.
Angular momentum quantum number (l ) The quantum number that indicates the shape of the orbital.
Magnetic quantum number (m) The quantum number that indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus.
Spin quantum number (s) The quantum number that has only two possible values, +1/2 and -1/2, which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital.
Aufbau Principle An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it.
Electron Configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Pauli Exclusion Principle No two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers.
Hund’s Rule Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin.
Valence Electron An electron that is available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds.
Inner-shell electrons Electrons that are not in the highest occupied energy level.
Highest occupied energy level The electron-containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number.
Noble Gas Configuration An outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cases, by eight electrons.
s sublevel or sub-orbital Orbital with lowest energy. In a ground-state hydrogen atom, the electron is in this orbital.
p sublevel or sub-orbital Orbital with the next highest energy.
f sublevel or sub-orbital Orbital with highest energy level.
Created by: EKinateder



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