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Chemistry 128


chemical kinetics investigation of the rate at which rxns occur
rate how fast a quantity changes w/ time
rxn rate how fast reactants are consumed and products formed
rate = change in quantity/ time elapsed
rate law = k[A][B]
method of initial rates initial rates of rxn is measured w/ several different starting amounts of reactants
R-->P rate= k[R]^x
order (0) stays the same x1
order (1) doubles x2
order (2) x4
order (3) x8
log(a)(b) loga+logb
log a/b loga-logb
log a^b bloga
collision theory reactant particles must collide, collide w. enough energy to initiate rxn, and have proper orientation
increase rate of rxn temp. add more reactants.
exothermic AB+C --> A+BC means BC is stonger than AB
endothermic AB+C--> A+BC meand AB is stronger than BC
catalyst lower A. E
unimolecular A-->B
bimolecular A+B-->AB or AB+C->ABC
termolecular A+B+C->ABC
Arrenhenius acid substance that donates a proton
Arrenhius Base substance that accepts a proton
Monoprotic acid only 1 proton to donate
monoprotic base can only accept 1 proton
polyprotic acid can donate several protons
polyprotic base can accept several protons
Amphiprotic a substance that acts as both an acid and a base
The stronger the acid the weaker the conjugate base
The stronger the base the weaker the conjugate acid
Ka is used to measure the strength of the acid
kb is used to measure the strength of the base
Ka= Products / Reactants
kb= Products/ Reactants
k=kw= 1.0x 10^-14 @ 25 C
pH= -log[H]
pOH= -log[OH]
[H]= 10^-pH
[OH]= 10^-pOH
kw= [H][OH]
pH+pOH= 14.00
kakb kw
acidic solution pH less than 7
basic solution pOh greater than 7
pka= -logka
pkb= -logkb
As acid strength increases ka increases and pka decreases
as base strength increase kb increases and pkb decreases
Reaction direction: k<1 rxn is left
reaction direction: k>1 rxn is right
k= kakb/kw
Cl- neutral
No3- neutral
Br- neutral
ClO4- neutral
Na, Ca, k, ba neutral
diprotic: ka1kb2= kw
diprotic: ka2kb1= kw
triprotic:ka1kb3= ka2kb2= ka3kb1= kw
Lewis acid electron pair acceptor
lewis base electron pair donor
buffer resist pH change when acid or base is added both. must be an acid and a base that do not react with each other. usually conjugate acid-base pair
Hendersen-Hasselbach equation pH=pka+log(base/acid)
buffer should have pka close to ph
indicators weak acid or base whose acidic &basic forms are different colors (loss or gain of a proton)
solubility is a continuum
solubility how many moles/grams dissolve in a given amount of water
precipitation will begin when.. Q=ksp
Ksp is solubility of solution 18.2 or appendix J
Created by: threasa.hicks