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Periodic Trends

Key Terms

periodic law the law that states that the repeating chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically with the atomic numbers of the elements
periodic table an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers such that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group
lanthanide a member of the rare-earth series of elements, whose atomic numbers range from 58 (cerium) to 71 (lutetium)
actinide any of the elements of the actinide series, which have atomic numbers from 89 (actinium, Ac) through 103 (lawrencium, Lr)
alkali metal one of the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium)
alkaline-earth metal one of the elements of Group 2 of the periodic table (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium)
transition element one of the metals that can use the inner shell before using the outer shell to bond
main-group element an element in the s-block or p-block of the periodic table
halogen one of the elements of Group 17 of the periodic table (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine); halogens combine with most metals to form salts
Atomic radius one-half of the distance between the center of identical atoms that are not bonded together
Ion an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
Ionization the process of adding or removing electrons from an atom or molecule, which gives the atom or molecule a net charge
Ionization energy the energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion (abbreviation, IE)
Electron affinity the energy needed to remove an electron from a negative ion to form a neutral atom or molecule
Cation an ion that has a positive charge
Anion an ion that has a negative charge
Valence electron an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties
Electronegativity a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
Created by: mca420