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Chem112 Exam 1

Ch.12, 13, 14

Intramolecular Forces The forces holding atoms together to form molecules
Intermolecular Forces Forces between molecules, between ions, or between molecules and ions
Ion-Ion Forces Attraction between metal and nonmetal *Is not an intermolecular force *Salts
Ion-Dipole Forces The electrostatic force between an ion and a neutral molecule that has a permanent dipole moment
Dipole-Dipole Forces Bond between polar molecule and polar molecule *depends on atom electronegativities and molecular structure
Hydrogen Bonding A special form of dipole-dipole attraction, which enhances dipole-dipole attractions *Bonds with N, O, F
Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole Bond between nonpolar molecule and nonpolarmolecule *London dispersion *Includes noble gases and diatomic molecules
Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces Dipole moment of polar molecule and polarizability of nonpolar molecule
Polarization The process of inducing a dipole
Polarizability The extent to which the electron cloud of an atom or molecule can be distorted by an external electric charge
Vapor Pressure The pressure of the vapor of a substance in contact with its liquid or solid phase in a sealed container
Normal Boiling Point The temperature at which the change from a liquid to gas occurs *T(C)=100 P(mmHg)=760
Heat of Vaporization The heat required (at constant P) to vaporize the liquid
Phase Diagram A graph showing which phases of a substance exist at various temperatures and pressures
Triple Point All three phases are in equilibrium *T(C)=0.0098 P(mmHg)=4.58
Freezing Point The temperature at which the change from a liquid to solid occurs *T(C)=0 P(mmHg)=760
Critical Point Combination of critical temperature and critical pressure. The liquid and gas phases have exactly the same density
Critical Pressure Minimum pressure needed to liquefy a substance at the critical temperature
Critical Temperature Temperature above which the gas can no longer be liquefied, regardless of pressure. The highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid
Sublimation Solid to a gas
Le Chatelier's Principle The behavior of water under pressure. A change in any of the factors determining an equilibrium will cause the system to adjust to reduce the effect of the change
Melting Solid to a liquid
Freezing Liquid to a solid
Vaporization Liquid to a gas
Condensation Gas to a liquid
Deposition Gas to a solid
Heating Curve A plot of temperature versus time where heat is added
Cooling Curve A plot of temperature versus time when heat is removed
Solution A homogenous mixture in a single phase
Evaporation Liquid to a gas
Henry's Law The concentration of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid
Solid The phase of matter in which a substance has both definite shape and definite volume
Liquid The phase of matter in which a substance has no definite shape but no definite volume
Gas The phase of matter in which a substance has no definite shape and a volume defined only by the size of its container
Super Critical Fluid A substance at or above the critical temperature and pressure
Molarity (M) moles of solute/liter of solution
Molality (m) moles of solute/kilogram solvent
Mole Fraction (X) moles of solute/total moles present
Mass Precentage (%) mass of solute x 100%
Parts per million (ppm) mass of solute/mass of solution x 10^6
Parts per billion (ppb) mass of solute/mass of solution x 10^9
Raoult's Law The vapor pressure of the solvent is proportional to the mole fraction of the solvent in a solution
Ideal Solutions Solutions that obey Raoult's law, in which the intermolecular forces in the two pure liquids are almost identical in both kind and magnitude and the change in enthalpy on solution formation is essentially zero
Real Solutions Exhibit positive or negative deviations from Raoult's Law because the intermolecular interactions between the two components A and B differ
Negative Deviation They like each other so much that they wait (analogy of waiting to get a ticket)
Positive Deviation They dislike each other so much that they hurry (analogy of waiting to get a ticket)
Simple Distillation A single distilling column. They give reasonable separations
Fractional Distillation Gives increased separation because of the increased surface area
Colligative Properties The properties of a solution that depend only on the number of solute particles per solvent molecule and not on the nature of the solute or solvent *Boiling Point Elevation*Freezing Point Depression*Vapor Pressure*Osmotic Pressure
van't Hoff factor Apparent number of particles in solution divided by the number moles of solute dissolved
Osmotic Pressure The difference in pressure between the two sides of the membrane
Osmosis The net flow of solvent through a membrane due to different solute concentrations
Amalgams Usually solids, are solutions of metals in liquid mercury
Colloid A state of matter intermediate between a solution and a suspension, in which solute particles are large enough to scatter light but too small to settle out
Gel A colloid dispersion with a structure that prevents it from flowing
Sol A colloidal dispersion of a solid substance in a fluid medium
Aerosol A dispersion of solid and liquid particles in a gas
Emulsion A dispersion of one liquid phase in another liquid with which it is immiscible
Micelle Liquids of detergents in water form organized spherical or cylindrical aggregates, which minimize contact between the hydrophobic tails and water
Phospholipids A large class of biological molecules that consist of detergent-like molecules that contain a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails
Created by: ansecaballero