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Chemistry studyguide

all the info i learned in the chemistry unit

Who organized elements by their masses from least to greatest in 1864? john newlands
Who created the system that we use now for the periodic table in 1869? dmitri mendeleyev
What did mendeleyev organize the elements by? atomic masses and properties
What happened in 400 BC? greek philosophers were trying to figure out what things are made of
Whos credited for the idea of atomism? leucippus
What does atom mean? uncutable
What happened to the idea of atomism? it was ignored til the 1500s
How many families are there in the periodic table? 10
What are the families called? alkali metals, alkali earth metals, halogens, noble gases, metals, nonmetals,transition metals, metalloids,lanthanides,actinides
What are some characterisitcs of metalloids? have properties of metals and nonmetals; used in comp. and electronics
What are 3 examples of metalloids? boron, germanium, antimony
Whats boron used in? helps mantain normal cell function
Whats germanium used in? as a semiconductor
Whats antimony used in? infrared detectors
What are some characteristics of halogens? very electronegative;bonds easily with alkaline metals
what are 3 examples of halogens? flourine,chlorine,idodine
Whats flourine used in? rocket fuels
whats chlorine used in? to disinfect pools
whats idodine used in? treat eye infections
What are some charctersics of noble gases? unreactive; bonds easily with alkaline metals
What are 3 examples of noble gases? helium,neon,xenon
Whats helium used in? breathing mixture for deep sea divers
Whats neon used in? glow sticks
Whats xenon used in electron tubes
What are some characteristics of lanthanides? produce spark; rare earth elements
What are 3 examples of lanthanides? europium,samarium,terbium
whats europium used in? red color in tvs
Whats samarium used in/for? pain killer medicine
whats terbium used in/for? lasers
What are some characteristics of actinides? used nuclear energy; very radioactive
What are 3 examples of actinides? califormium, fermium, einsteinium
whats califormium used in? moisture gauges
what are fermium and einsteinium used in? they have no uses so far
What are some characteristics of alkali metals? very reactive in water; electropositive
what are 3 exampls of alkali metals? lithium, sodium , potassium
Whats lithium used in? batteries
whats sodium used in? table salt
whats potassium used in? potassium cyanide
What are some characteristics of alkali earth metals? mallable; used in fireworks
What are 3 examples of alkali earth metals? magnesium, calcium, beryllium
whats magnesium used in? bombs
whats calcium used in? to dry things
whats beryllium used in? radiation windows
What are some characteristics of transition metals? hard and dense; used in construction
what are 3 examples of transition metals? platinum, silver, mercury
whats platinum used in? catalytic converter
whats silver used in? jewelry
whats mercury used in? batteries
what are some characteristics of metals? good conductors of electricity; good conductors of heat
what are 3 examples of metals? aluminum,tin,lead
whats aluminum used in? kitchen pots
whats tin used in? kitchen utensils
what lead used in? tennis racket
what are some characteristics of nonmetals? poor conductors of heat and electricity, elements of life
what are 3 examples of nonmetals? hydrogen, carbon, oxygen
whats hydrogen used in? hydrochloric acid
whats carbon usedin? base for ink
What does chemistry mean? the study of the composition and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes
what are atoms? smallest parts of elemnt
whats a proton? positively charged particle in atoms nuclues
what are electrons? negatively charged particles
what are nuetrons? particles that have the same mass as protons but have a nuetral charge
whats an element? matter made of elements of only one kind
whats atomic mass? the weighted average mass of the isotopes of an element
whats an atomic number? the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element
what did the alchemist hennig brand discover? phosphorus
how was the microwave discovered? in WW2 workers would warm themselves next to magnetron machines and one time someone noticed that their candy bar melted
Why is marie curie a famous chemist? she worked with radioactivity
whos antoine lavoisier? "father of chemistry" discovered oxygen
whos linus pauling? worked on chemical bonding
what was john daltons atomic theory? all matter is made up of tiny building blocks, atoms, that cant b created or destroyed; atomic model-> O
what was william crooks atomic theory? atom contained charged particle O(+-)
what was jj thompsons atomic theory? atoms contained equal numbers of charged particles, making it nuetral
whats ernest rutherfords atomic theory? the atoms nucleus was positive and was surrounded by negativly charged electrons
whats niehs bors atomic theory? electrons orbit nucleus in circular pattern (electron cloud theory)
what was the 1st chemical reaction discovered? fire
whats alchemy? the science of changing cheap metals into expensive metals. :philosophers stone; urine was important
whats an isotope? same element, different number on nuetrons. and different atomic mass
how many isotopes does carbon have and what are they called? 2; carbon 12 and carbon 14
how many hydrogen isotopes are there and whats their names? 3; hydrogen 1, hydrogen 2, hydrogen 3
when is a shell considered full? when there's 8 electrons
Created by: VaLeRiA!



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