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Chem - Exam #1

Chapters 3-4 & 7

What is matter? Anything that has mass and occupies space.
What is a pure substance? Matter that has a specific composition.
What are pure substances made up of? Elements and compounds.
What is a mixture? The physical condition of two or more substances that do not change their identities. They are physically mixed and not chemically combined.
What are the two types of mixtures? Hetergeneous and homogeneous
What is a heterogeneous mixture? A mixture of two or more substances that are not mixed uniformly.
What is a homogeneous mixture? A mixture of two or more substances that are mixed uniformly.
What are the properties of alkali metals? Group 1A. They are soft, shiny metals. They are good conductors of heat & electricity. They have relatively low melting points. React vigorously with water. Form white powder when they combine with oxygen.
What are the properties of alkaline earth metals? Group 2A. Less reactive than the metals found in Group 1A.
What are the properties of halogens? Group 7A. Strongly reactive and form compounds with most of the elements.
What are the properties of noble gases? Group 8A. Quite nonreactive & are seldom found in combinations with other elements.
Know the four parts of Dalton's atomic theory (1-2) 1. All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of a given element are similar to one another & different atoms of other elements.
Know the four parts of Dalton's atomic theory (3-4) 3. Atoms of two or more different elements combine to form compounds. 4. A chemical reaction involves the rearrangement, separation, or combination of atoms. Atoms are never created or destroyed during a chemical reaction.
What are the components of the atom? Proton, electron, nucleus
Proton Electrical charge: +1 Mass: 1 Located in the nucleus
Neutron Electrical charge: ) Mass: 1 Location: Nucleus
Electron Electrical charge: -1 Mass: 1/2000 Location: Outside nucleus
What is the atomic mass unit? A small mass unit used to describe the mass of very small particles such as atoms and subatomic particles. 1 amu is equal to 1/12th the mass of a Carbon-12 atom.
What is the atomic number? A number that is equal to the number of protons in an atom.
What is the atomic mass? The weighted average mass of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
What is a valence electron? Electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom.
What is the atomic radius? The distance from the nucleus to the valence electrons.
Atomic radius trends: Atomic radius increases from the top to the bottom of a group because the outermost electrons occupy higher energy levels which are farther from the nucleus.
Atomic size trends: Atomic size decreases going across a period. As the positive charge in the nucleus increases, there is an increase in attraction which pulls all of the electrons closer together, thus decreasing the atomic size.
What is ionization energy? The energy needed to remove the least tightly bound electron from an atom in the gaseous state.
Trends in ionization energy in a group: Ionization energy decreases going down a group because less energy is needed to remove an electron because nuclear attraction decreases when electrons are farther from the nucleus.
Trends in ionization energy in a period: Ionization energy increases across a period because as the positive charge of the nucleus increases, more energy is needed to remove an electron.
What is the octet rule? Elements in groups 1A-&a react with other elements by forming ionic or covalent bonds to produce a noble gas arrangement, usually 8 electrons in the outer shell.
Properties of ionic bonding: In ionic bonding, the valance electrons of a metal are transferred to a nonmetal. Occur between a metal and a non-metal.
What are cations? Positively charged ions.
What are anions? Negatively charged ions.
Properties of Ionic Compounds: Consist of positively and negatively charged ions. They have melting and boiling points that are high. They are typically a solid at room temperature.
When do you use roman numerals when naming a compound? When transitional elements are present. Transitional elements form positive charges or cations.
What are covalent compounds? Atoms that share electrons.
What are the types od covalent bonds? Non-polar covalent bond Polar covalent bond Dipole polar covalent bond
What is a non-polar covalent bond? Covalent bond between atoms with identical or very similar electronegative values.
What is a polar covalent bond? Electrons are shared unequally. Shared electrons are attracted to the more electronegative atom. This makes the atom slightly more negative and the atom with the lower electronegative charge is slightly more positive.
What is a dipole polar covalent bond? A polar covalent bond that has a separation of charges.
What are diatomic molecules? Molecules that contain two atoms of the same element and occur naturally. Diatomic molecules are non-polar.
How does electro negativity play a role in determining bond type? The differences in polarity determines the bond type.
How can you determine whether a molecule has polar or non-polar bonds? Polar bonds have dipoles which do not cancel whereas non-polar bonds do cancel.
What is a solvent? The substance in which the solute dissolves: usually the component present in the greatest amount.
What is a solute? The component in a solution that is present in the smaller quantity.
What is the concept of "like dissolves like" The polarities of a solute and a solvent must be similar in order to form a solution. Non-polar dissolves polar Polar dissolves polar.
What are the three types of electrolytes? Strong electrolytes Weak electrolytes Non-electrolytes
What are the properties of strong electrolytes? They disassociate in water, producing positive and negative ions. They conduct electric current in water.
What are the properties of weak electrolytes? They disassociate only slightly in water.
What are the properties of non-electrolytes. They dissolve as molecules in water. They do not produce ions in water. They do not conduct an electric current.
What are the requirements for electrolyte concentrations in terms of equivalents? The mEqs per liter of cations must equal the mEqs per liter of anions.
What is solubility? The maximum amount of solute that dissolves in a specific amount of solvent.
What are the effects of temperature on solubility? The solubility of solids increase as temperature increases. The solubility of gases decreases as temperature increases.
What is Henry's Law? The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly related to the pressure of that class above the liquid.
What is a colloid? A mixture having particles that are moderately large. Colloids pass through filters but cannot pass through a semipermeable membranes.
What are some examples of colloids? Milk, whipped cream, blood plasma.
What are suspensions? A mixture in which the solute particles are large enough and heavy enough to settle out and be retained by both filters and semipermeable membranes.
What is osmosis? The flow of a solvent, usually water, through a semipermeable membrane into a solution of higher solute concentration.
What is an isotonic solution? A solution that has the same particle concentration and osmotic pressure as that of the cells in the body.
What is a hypertonic solution? A solution that has a higher particle concentration and higher osmotic pressure than the cells of the body. This causes water to flow out of the RBCa and cause crenation, or a shrinking of the cells.
What is a hypotonic solution? A solution that has a lower particle concentration and lower osmotic pressure than the cells of the body. This causes water to flow inside of the RBCs, thus causing hemolysis...or the cells to burst and swell.
Created by: CarlyK82