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Chem 178 Chapter 16

Acid-Base Equilibria Review

QuestionAnswer
16.1) What is an Arrhenius acid? A substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of H+ ions.
16.1) What is an Arrhenius base? A substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of OH- ions.
16.1) What are the seven most common strong acids? HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, HBr, HI, HClO3, HClO4
16.2) Can H+ and H3O+ be used interchangeably? Yes
16.2) What is a Bronsted-Lowry acid? A species that donates H+
16.2) What is a Bronsted-Lowry base? A species that accepts H+
16.2) What kind of substance can behave either as an acid or a base? Amphiprotic
16.2) What is the name for a reactant and product that differ only in the presence or absence of a proton? Conjugate acid-base pair
16.2) If an acid is very strong, will the conjugate base very strong or very weak? Very weak
16.2) If an acid is weak, is the conjugate base strong or weak? Weak
16.2) What type of acid completely transfers its protons to water? Strong
16.2) Is acetic acid a strong or weak acid, and is its conjugate base strong or weak? Weak, Weak
16.2) What is the strongest acid that can exist in equilibrium in aqueous solution? H+
16.2) What is the strongest base that can exist in equilibrium in aqueous solution? OH-
16.3) What is K sub W? Ion-product constant
16.3) Is a solution acidic, basic, or neutral if [OH-]=[H3O+]? Neutral
16.3)Is a solution acidic, basic, or neutral if [OH-]<[H3O+]? Acidic
16.3) Is a solution acidic, basic, or neutral if [OH-]>[H3O+]? Basic
16.4)What is the equation used to calculate pH? pH=-log[H+]
16.4) A pH change of 1 unit results from the [H+]changing by how many units? 10
16.4) As the pH of a solution decreases, is the acidity of the solution increasing or decreasing? Increasing
16.4) As the pH of a solution increases, is the acidity of the solution increasing or decreasing? Decreasing
16.4) What is the equation used to calculate pOH? pOH=-log[OH-]
16.5)Are strong acids strong electrolytes or weak electrolytes? Strong
16.5) What are the most common strong bases? Ionic hydroxides of the alkali metals and heavier alkaline metals
16.6) What is K sub a? Acid-dissociation constant
16.6) If (K sub a)>>1, is the acid very strong or very weak? Very strong
16.6) What type of acid has more than one ionizable proton? Polyprotic
16.7) What is K sub b? Base-dissociation constant
16.7) If (K sub b)>>1, is the base very strong or very weak? Very strong
16.8) Which equation relates Ka, Kb, and Kw? Ka*Kb=Kw
16.9) Are salts generally strong or weak electrolytes? Strong
16.11) What is a lewis acid? Electron pair acceptor
16.11) What is a lewis base? Electron pair donor
Created by: kbruning