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# A level Physics 4 Df

### Definitions

Absolute zero The temperature at which a substance has minimum internal energy.
Amplitude is the maximum displacement from the centre of an oscillation/ equilibrium position
Angular frequency Rate at which central angle changes each second
cycle A complete movement of an oscillating or cycle
Boyles Law For a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature, the product of pressure and volume is constant
Centripetal acceleration Acceleration of a body following a circular path: directed towards the centre of a circle. It is perpendicular to the velocity
Centripetal force Resultant force that has to act towards the centre of a circle to make a body follow a circular path. It is perpendicular to the velocity.
Heavy damping Heavy damping in which the system takes a long time to reach equilibrium.
Critical damping Critical damping where the system reaches equilibrium in a short time compared with T with no overshoot where T is the natural period of vibration of the system. Time to damp about ¼ of period of oscillation
Phase difference between two points in an oscillation is a measure of what fraction of a complete oscillation has been completed between the two points
Pressure Law for gases For a fixed mass of gas at constant volume, the pressure is directly proportional to the temperature measured in kelvin
Resonance The large amplitude oscillations that arise as a result of an oscillatory system being driven at a frequency equal to its natural frequency.Maximum energy transfer
Simple harmonic motion definition If the acceleration restoring force of a body is directly proportional to its distance from a fixed point and is always directed towards that point in its motion it is said to be SHM
Specific Heat Capacity is the heat required to produce unit rise in temperature in unit mass of the material
Specific Latent Heat The specific latent heat of transformation from one phase to another is the energy needed per unit mass of the substance for the phase change to occur without any change of temperature occurring
Time period Time for one complete rotation or oscillation
displacement How far and in what direction the body is from its equilibrium position
Free oscillation Simple harmonic motion with a constant amplitude and period and no external influences
Frequency The number of oscillations completed per second
Gravitational Field lines The direction in which a mass will move. Spherical masses produce radial fields. Near the earth we assume that the field is uniform. Gravitational fields are attractive only.
Gravitational field strength Force per unit mass in a gravitational field
Hookes Law Force is directly proportional to extension. F =kx up to the limit of prpportionality
Ideal gas equation An ideal gas obeys the gas laws and pV =nRT exactly. No such gas exists.
In Phase Two points which are in phase have a complete number of oscillations between them.
Internal Energy is the sum of the random distribution kinetic and potential energies possessed by the atoms or molecules in a system
Isochronous Time period is constant
Kepler’s third law T2 proportional to r3
Newton’s Law of Gravitation Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their distances apart.
One mole One mole of a substance contain 6.02 x 1023 particles and that 6.02 x 1023mol-1 is the Avogadro constant NA.
Out of phase Completely out of step with each other, π or 180.
Period The periodic time is the time taken to make one complete oscillation/rotation
Pressure Force per unit area
Natural Frequency The frequency at which a free standing system oscillates after it has been displaced and then released
Created by: Susan E Casey