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Stats Chapter 12


population the entire group of individuals or instances about whom we hope to learn
sample a representative subset of a population examined in hope of learning about the population
sample survey a study that asks questions of a sample drawn from some population in the hope of learning something about the entire population
bias any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its population is bias
randomization best defense against bias is randomization in which each individual is given a fair, random chance of selection
census consists of the entire population (sample)
population parameter a numerically valued attribute of a model for a population
statistic, sample statistic values calculated for sampled data
representative the statistics computed from it accurately reflect the corresponding population parameters
SRS simple random sample is said to be representative if the statistics computed from it accurately reflect the corresponding population parameters
sampling frame a list of individuals from whom the sample is drawn
sampling variability the natural tendency of randomly drawn samples to differ from one another
stratified random sample sampling design in which the population is divided into several subpopulations, or STRATA, and random samples are then drawn from each stratum
cluster sample a design in which entire groups or clusters are chosen at random, usually selected as a matter of convenience, practicality, or cost, each should be representative of the population and should be heterogeneous and similiar
multistage sample sampling schemes that combine several sampling methods are called multistage samples
systematic sample drawn by selected individuals systematicallly from a sampling frame; when there is no relationship between the order of the sampling frame and the variables of interest, a systematic sample is representative
pilot small trial run of a survey to see if questions are clear
voluntary response bias bias introduced to a sample when individuals can choose on their own whether or not to participate; always invalid
convenience sample consists of the individuals that are conveniently available, not representative because not all people in the population are equally convenient to sample
undercoverage sampling scheme that biases the sample in a way that gives a part of the population less representation than it has in the population suffers from undercoverage
nonresponse bias bias introduced when a large fraction of those sampled fails to respond
response bias anything in a survey design that influences response
Created by: 697421973