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# Stats Chapter 3

### vocab

frequency (relative frequency) table lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the count (or percentage) of observations for each category
distribution gives the possible values of the variable and the relative frequency of each variable
area principle in a statistical display, each data value should be represented by the same amount of area
bar chart (relative frequency bar chart) show a bar whose area represents the count (or percentage) of observations for each category of a categorical variable
pie chart shows how a whole divides into categories by showing a wedge of a circle whose area corresponds to the proportion in each category
categorical data condition the fact that graphs and displays can only be used for categorical data used in this chapter
contingency table displays counts and sometimes percentages of individuals falling into named categories on two or more variables, categorizes the individuals on all variables at once to reveal possible patterns in one variable that may be contingent on another cat.
marginal distribution in a contingency table, the distribution of either variable alone is called the marginal distribution; the counts or percentages are the totals found in the margins (last row)
conditional distribution the distribution of a variable restricting the WHO to consider only a smaller group of individuals is called a conditional distribution
independence variables are independent if the conditional distribution of one variable is the same category of the other
segmented bar chart displays the conditional distribution of a categorical variable within each category of another variable
Simpson's paradox when averages are taken across different groups they can appear to contradict the overall averages
Created by: 697421973