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# Elem. Stats Ch 1

### A Brief Version: Elementary Statistics Ch 1

Statistics The science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data.
Variable A characteristic or attribute that can assume different values.
Descriptive Statistics Consists of the collection, organization, summarization, and presentation of data.
Population Consists of all subjects (human or otherwise) that are being studied.
Sample Is a group of subjects from a population.
Inferential Statistics Consists of generalizing from samples to population, performing hypothesis tests, determining relationships among variables and making predictions.
Discrete Variables Assume values can be counted.
Continuous Variables Can assume all values between any two specific values. They are obtained by measuring
Qualitative Variables Variables that can be placed into distinct categories, according to some characteristic or attribute.
Quantitative Variables Variables that are numerical in nature and can be ordered or ranked.
Nominal Level of Measurement Classifies data into mutually exclusive (nonoverlapping), exhausting categories in which no order or ranking can be imposed on the data.
Ordinal Level of Measurement Classifies data into categories that can be ranked; however, precise differences between the ranks do not exists.
Ratio Level of Measurement Possesses all the characteristics of interval measurement, and there exists a true zero. In addition, true ratios exists when the same variable is measured on two different members of the population.
Interval Level of Measurement Ranks data, and precise differences between units of measure do exist; however, there is no meaningful zero.
Random Samples Subjects are selected by random numbers or chance methods.
Systematic Samples Subjects are selected by using every kth number after the first subject is randomly selected from 1 through k
Stratified Samples Subjects are selected by dividing up the population into groups (strata) and subjects within groups are randomly selected.
Cluster Subjects are selected by using an intact group that is representative of the population.
Observational Study The researcher merely observes what is happening or what has happened in the past and tries to draw conclusions on these observations.
Experimental Study The researches manipulated one of the variables and tries to determine how the manipulation influences other variables.
Independent Variable (Also called Explanatory Variable) In an experimental study is the one that is being manipulated by the researcher.
Dependent Variable (Also called Outcome Variable) The resultant variable of an experimental study.
Confounding Variable One that influences the dependent or outcome variable but cannot be separated from the independent variable.
Created by: dengler