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Tanya Cooper Solution Chemistry Vocabulary

Solute the substance dissolved in a solution
Solvent the dissolving medium in a solution
Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase
Aqueous term used to describe a system which involves water; also applied to a solution or mixture in which water is the solvent
Freezing Point depression the difference between the freezing points of a pure solvent and a solution of a nonelectrolyte in that solvent; is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution
Boiling Point elevation the difference between the boiling point of a pure solvent and a nonelectrolyte of that solvent; directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution
Saturated a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
Unsaturated a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under the existing conditions
Supersaturated a solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains under the same conditions
Distillation a process in which heat is used to separate two or more liquids that have different boiling points
Filtering blocking certain objects or substances while letting others through with a filter
Chromatography a method of separating and analyzing mixtures of chemicals
Solubility the amount of a substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature
Mixture a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties
Homogeneous having a uniform composition throughout
Heterogeneous not having a uniform composition throughout
Suspension a mixture in which the particles in the solvent are so large that they settle out unless the mixture is constantly stirred or agitated
Colloid a mixture consisting of particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions forming mixtures known as colloid dispersions
Dissociation the separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves
Electrolyte a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current
Nonelectrolyte a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electric current
Precipitate a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution and that separates from the solution
Ionic equation equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominate form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water
Molecular equation equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules; only complete formulas are used
Spectator ion an ion that does not take part in a chemical reaction and is found in solution both before and after the reaction
Acid a chemical compound that dissociates in solution, releasing hydrogen ions and lowering the solution pH (a proton donor)
Base a substance that neutralizes acids; a chemical species that donates electrons or hydroxide ions or that accepts protons
Neutralization the reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules
Oxidation a reaction in which the atoms or ions of an element experience an increase in oxidation state
Reduction a reaction in which the oxidation state of an element decreases
Molarity the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution
Molality the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
Dilution the process of adding solvent to a solution to make it less concentrated
Titration the controlled addition and measurement of the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react completely with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration
Concentration a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
Created by: sweett