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SNC2DI Chemistry

Grade 10 Chemistry

QuestionAnswer
Water is considered to be matter even though it often appears in a liquid form. This is explained by stating that like all matter, water has ____________________ and takes up space. mass
The ____________________ properties of sulphur include that it usually forms solid yellow crystals, and has a melting point of 115ºC. physical
An unknown sample that cannot be broken down any more by using chemical methods must be a(n) ____________________. element
Types of ____________________ include mechanical such as salad, suspensions like salad dressing, and solutions like iced tea. mixtures matter
The subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus and which has a charge is the ____________________. proton
The only important thing all of the elements in the same ____________________ on the periodic table have in common is the number of electron shells they have. period row
The most reactive group of elements on the metal side of the periodic table is _________________________. alkali metals group 1 family 1
The pattern of electrons appearing in the first three shells of the Bohr diagrams of elements is ____________________. 2, 8, 8
A(n) ____________________ compound forms when, for example, a metal element and a non-metal element join by transferring electrons from the metal to the non-metal. ionic
The name of the ionic compound K2S is _________________________. potassium sulphide
Carbonate, CO32–, is a _________________________, a group of elements that behave like a single ion. polyatomic ion
When two non-metals form a molecular compound, their electrons are shared in a ____________________ bond. covalent, molecular
Acid a compound that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Chemical Formula usually HX(X = monatomic or polyatomic ion). Chemical formula = H+
Base a compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Bases are named as if they were ionic compounds (the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion).
Hydroxide Ion A water molecule that loses a hydrogen ion and thus becomes negatively charged. Hydroxide ions are denoted OH-. (Do not conf. with hydronium ion)
Hydronium Ion A water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion and thus becomes positively charged. Hydronium ions are denoted H3O+. (Do not conf. with hydroxide ion)
Neutral Solution any aqueous solution in which [H+] and [OH-] are equal. For example pure water is a neutral substance. pH = 7.0 ([H+] = 1.0 x 10-7 mol/L)
Acidic Solution When the [H+] is greater than the [OH-]. Thus, the [H+] of an acidic solution is always greater than 1.0 x 10-7 mol/L. (don’t mix up with basic)
Basic Solution When the [H+] is less than the [OH-]. Thus, the [H+] of an acidic solution is always less than 1.0 x 10-7 mol/L. (don’t mix up with Acidic)
Alkaline Solutions another name for a basic solution.
pH the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration. pH=-log[H+]. Always express in scientific notation.
A reaction in which a compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds Decomposition Reaction
A number written in front of a chemical formula Coefficient
A solid produced during a chemical reaction in a solution Precipitate
A solution in which the solvent is water Aqueous Solution
A statement that uses chemical formulas to show the identities and relative amounts of the substances involved in a chemical reaction Chemical Equation
Substance dissolved in a solution Solute
A reaction in which oxygen combines with a substances and releases heat and light energy Combustion Reaction
A reaction in which the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound Single Replacement Reaction
A reaction involving the exchange of positive ions between two compounds dissolved in water Double Replacement Reaction
The process by which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances Chemical Reaction
A starting substance in a chemical reaction Reactant
A substance formed during a chemical reaction Product
A reaction in which two or more substances react to produce a single product Synthesis Reaction
The most plentiful substance in a solution Solvent
What type of reaction does the following describe: Reactants - One Products - Two or more Decomposition Reaction
What type of reaction does the following describe: Reactants - Two Compounds Products - Two Compounds Double Replacement Reaction
What type of reaction does the following describe: Reactants - Two or more Products - One Synthesis Reaction
What type of reaction does the following describe: Reactants - An element and a compound Products - An element and a compound Single Replacement Reaction
The symbol (s) is used in an equation to designate the substance as a _____________ Solid
The symbol (g) is used in an equation to designate the substance as a _____________ Gas
The symbol (l) is used in an equation to designate the substance as a _____________ Liquid
The symbol (aq) is used in an equation to designate the substance as a _____________ Aqueous
In a balanced equation, the number of ____________ on the reactants side must match the number of _______________ on the products side Particles(atoms)
A(n) _______________ equation uses chemical formulas rather than words to identify the reactants and products Skeleton
Counting the atoms of the elements in the reactants is step ___ for balancing equations 2
Changing the coefficients to make the number of atoms of each element equal on both sides of the equation is step ___ for balancing equations 4
Writing the coefficients in their lowest possible ratio is step ___ for balancing equations 5
Writing the skeleton equation for the reaction is step ____ for balancing equations 1
"Mass is never created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction"... this is a statement of the... Law of Conservation of Mass
There are ___ types of chemical reactions 4
The four types of chemical reactions are: Synthesis, __________, single replacement and double replacement Decomposition
A(n) _____________________, is a useful tool for determining whether a chemical reaction will occur and for determining the result of a single replacement reaction Activity Series
_________________ is an example of a single replacement reaction: 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Photosynthesis
Nonmetals will replace _____________ in a single replacement reaction Nonmetals
Metals will replace hydrogen or another, less ___________ metal in a single replacement reaction Active
(True/False) Fluorine is more reactive than iodine TRUE
(True/False) Bromine is more reactive than Fluorine FALSE
Two people coming together to dance is a 'life comparison' to a _____________ reaction Synthesis
Two people parting when the dance is over is a 'life comparison' to a _____________ reaction Decomposition
Two people dancing, and someone cuts in, is a 'life comparison' to a _____________ reaction Single Replacement Reaction
Two couples switching dance partners is a 'life comparison' to a _____________ reaction Double Replacement Reaction
Hydroxide OH -
Bromide Br -
Fluoride F -
Iodide I -
Chloride Cl -
whom should an accident or spill be reported to at school? Teacher or Adult
What should you wear when performing scientific activities? always Googles, (Apron, and Gloves if necessary)
First aid kit used for cuts and burns
fire extinguisher used to put out fires
Why can glass be a safety problem? It can easily be broken and you can get cut.
Why can eating or drinking be dangerous when performing scientific activities? you could put something toxic or poisonous in your mouth
Why shouldn't you play practical jokes or roughhouse when performing scientific activities? Accidents can be dangerous and people can get hurt
Why is it a good idea to tie back long hair or loose-fitting clothing when performing scientific activities? Your hair or clothes could cause an accident.
What is used for transferring very tiny amounts of liquid? medicine dropper
What is worn to protect your eyes? cover googles, safety glasses
What enlarges the size of small objects? Hand lens/magnifying glass
What round bottom straight neck glassware is used to store liquids? Florence Flask
What triangular glassware is used to store solutions? Erlenmeyer Flask
What is used for measuring or mixing liquids Beaker
What device is used for weighing? Balance
What frame or structure is used to hold test tubes? Test tube rack
What is used to measure the volume of liquids? Graduated cylinder
What holds liquids for observation or testing? Test tube
What device blocks openings? Stopper
What is used for grasping? Forceps,tongs
What instrument is used for measuring temperature? Thermometer
What assists in transferring liquids to containers with smaller openings? funnel
Created by: marcarli