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Distance versus displacement. Distance is the total amount of space moved, w/o a particular direction (scalar). Displacement describes a change in position, and it has both direction and magnitude (vector).
Average speed = total distance over total time (V=D/T) (scalar)
Acceleration = change in velocity/Change in time
average velocity = displacement (vector) /change in time
Dynamics. Otherwise known as... The study of the forces that lead to motion. Newtonian mechanics or Newton's laws of motion.
Kinematics The branch of mechanics dealing with motion.
Year the 3 laws of motion were published. 1687
Unit for force (vector quantity) Newton (N)
Newton's First Law of Motion The law of inertia: A body either at rest or in motion w/constant velocity will remain that way unless a net force acts upon it.
Newton's Second Law of Motion A net force applied to a body of a mass will result in that body accelerating in the same direction. The magnitude of (a): magnitude of the net force and inversely proportional to the body's mass. F(sub net)=∑F=ma
Newton's Third Law of Motion If body (A) exerts a force (F) on body (B), then body (B) exerts a force (-F) back on (A). "To every action there is always an opposed but equal reaction." F(sub B) = -F(sub A)
Magnitude of the gravitational force F = Gm(to the 1)m(to the 2)/r(to the 2). G=gravitational constant, m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects, and (r) is the distance between their centers.
Static friction (f sub s) is the force that must be overcome to set an object in motion. A force greater than the maximum static friction force is required to cause the object to continue moving.
Kinetic friction The friction force once an object involved is moving. This is less than the static friction force.
Work Responsible for changing the energy of an object. Work is the scalar product of force (F) and displacement (s). W=Fs
Joule Joules (J), or Newton-meter, is a unit of work (W) or energy equal to the work done by a force of one Newton acting through a distance of one meter. W=Fd cos Ø. Ø (with horizontal line) is the angle between the applied force and the displacement.
Potential energy Depends on a body's position rather than motion like kinetic energy.
Conservation of Energy Exists when the work done by nonconservative forces = zero or there are no nonconservative forces so that the total amount of energy (total mechanical energy) remains constant.
Power The rate at which work is done. P=Work/Time
Transverse waves Particles oscillate perpendicular to the direction of the wave motion.
Longitudinal waves Particles oscillate along the direction of the wave motion.
Sound waves are what type of waves? Longitudinal waves.
What is sound? A mechanical disturbance that is dependent upon a medium for travel (anything but a vacuum).
What determines the speed of sound? The spacing of particles in the medium sound is traveling through determines the sound's speed. The smaller the spacing of particles, the faster the sound will travel.
How is sound produced? Either by the vibration of a solid object that sets adjacent molecules into motion, or by means of an acoustic vibration in an enclosed space. Stringed versus brass instruments.
Coulomb's law Opposite charges attract and like charges repel.
SI unit of charge Coulomb (C)
Flow of charge. Two types. Electric current, either direct or alternating.
Direction of electron flow compare to direction of current. In a conductor, negatively charged electrons flow from low to high potentials. Current goes in direction positive charge would flow, from high to low, opposite of electron flow.
Resistance. The opposition within a conductor of the flow of an electric current.
Ohm's law The voltage drop across a resistor is proportional to the current it carries. (Electrical current is proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance.)
The unit of electrical resistance Ohm
Created by: 741879016