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a to the 0 power = 1
a to the 1 power = a
a to the negative n power = 1 over a to the n power
(a to the x)(a to the y) = a to the x + y
(a to the x) over (a to the y) = a to the x - y
y root of a to the x = a to the (x divided by y)
n nano, 10 to the -9
µ micro, 10 to the -6
m milli, 10 to the -3
c centi, 10 to the -2
k kilo, 10 to the 3rd
M mega, 10 to the 6th
Guy that provided evidence the atom has a nucleus. When? 1911, Ernest Rutherford
Parts of an atom. neutrons (neutral) and protons (+) in the nucleus, surrounded by electrons (-) in orbitals
What is an amu? How was this chosen? Atomic Mass Unit = mass of 1 proton (1.66 x 10 to the -24th grams). Chosen so that carbon-12 (with 6 protons and 6 neutrons) has a mass of 12 amu.
atomic number Z. Why significant? Number of protons in the atom of that element. This is what defines an element.
mass number A Total number of neutrons and protons in an atom, determines it's mass. A=N+Z
Do neutrons, electrons, or protons have more mass? Neutrons have only slightly more mass than protons. Electrons have way less mass than neutrons or protons.
Term for electrons furthest from the nucleus. Significance? Valence electrons. The further the valence electrons are from the nucleus, the more likely they are to be influenced by other atoms (more reactive).
Definition of ion and types. Atom that has gained (anion) or lost electrons (cation).
atomic weight The mass, in grams, of one mole (mol) of atoms. Atomic weight of an element is expressed in g/mol.
Mole The number of atoms in 12g of carbon-12, which is Avogadro's number or 6.022 x 10 to the 23rd.
Avogadro's number 6.022 x 10 to the 23rd
isotope nuclei with varying numbers of neutrons
Why are the masses listed on the periodic table (atomic weights) not whole numbers? They are weighted averages that account for the relative abundance of various isotopes of an element.
Deuterium and tritium. Isotopes of hydrogen having Z1+N1=A2 and Z1+N2=A3 respectively.
What is fusion? Example? Small nuclei combine into a larger nucleus, releasing energy. The sun fuses 4 hydrogen nuclei to make 1 helium nucleus to produce 4x10 to the 26 joules/sec.
What is fission? What can cause this? Large nucleus splits into smaller nuclei. The absorption of a low-energy neutron can induce fission, releasing more neutrons and setting off a chain reaction.
Layout of a periodic table, columns and rows. Arranged by atomic number. Columns=groups (ea. has same electronic configuration in their valence. Similar reactiveness.), rows=periods (1 to 7, tells us the quantum # or highest shell that is occupied).
Inert or noble gasses. Group VIII, stable.
What happens as one moves from left to right on the periodic table? The # of electrons in the outermost shell increase one at a time and become closer and more tightly bound to the nucleus (greater nuclear attraction).
What happens as one moves from top to bottom on the periodic table? The outermost electrons become less tightly bound to the nucleus as the number of filled energy levels increases.
How does the atomic radius change throughout the periodic table? Decreases left to right. Increases top to bottom.
What is IE? How does this change throughout the periodic table? Ionization energy or ionization potential is the energy required to completely remove an electron from an atom or ion. IE increase left to right and decreases top to bottom.
How does IE grow successively? First IE is energy required to remove one valence electron from parent atom. The 2nd IE is the energy required to remove a valence electron from an ion with a +1 charge to form an ion with a +2 charge...
Describe electron affinity, positive and negative. How different than IE? Energy released when an electron is added to a gaseous atom. Tells us how the atom feels about gaining another electron (versus losing an electron/IE). Energy is released when electron is added.
What is electronegativity and how does it change across the periodic table? Measure of the attraction an atom has for electrons in a chemical bond. Increases left to right, but decrease top to bottom because of greater atomic radius.
2 categories of elements. Metals (left and center), nonmetals (right), and metalloids/semimetals (diagonal line between other two)
Characteristics of metals. Shiny and hard (besides mercury) at room temp., high melting point, high density, malleable, good ductility. Good conductors because few valence electrons can easily be removed and moved. Large atomic radius, low IE, low electronegativity.
Ductility The ability to be drawn into wires.
Most reactive metals. Group IA and IIA.
Characteristics of nonmetals. Generally brittle in solid state. Dull. High IE and electronegativities and poor conductors. Tend to form negative ions (gain electrons).
Non-metals B (Boron), Si(silicon), Ge (germanium), As(arsenic), Sb (antimony) Po(polonium), Te (tellurium)
Describe Group IA (IE, radius, density,electronegativity, reactivity) Alkali Metals have 1 loosely bound electron in their outermost shell which is easily lost (low IE). Largest atomic radii in their respective periods. Lower density than other metals. Low electronegativity. React w/nonmetals readily, esp. halogens.
Describe Group IIA (IE, radius, density,electronegativity, reactivity) Alkaline Earth Metals (low IE, slightly smaller radius than Group IA, low electronegativities, low electron affinities. Reactive.)
Describe Group VIIA (second to last group) Halogens are highly reactive nonmetals. 7, one short, of the favored octet of valence electrons. Vary in physical properties. Uniform chemical properties (high electroneg., react w/alkalis and alkalines that WANT to donate electrons).
Describe Group VIII Noble gases/inert gases. Full valence shell, so fairly nonreactive. High IE. Low boiling points. Gases at room temp.
What are transition elements? Found btw the alkaline earth metals. Metals. Hard, high melting and boiling pnts. Malleable and conductive to electricity because of partially filled d orbitals and d electrons are held loosely and mobile. Low IE. Positively charged.
Difference between chemical process and physical process. Involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds, versus interactions between molecules.
3 types of bonds ionic, covalent, and polar covalent bonds
Common ionic bonding between groups. Groups I and II (low electroneg., becomes cation) bond ionically with Group VII (high electroneg., becomes anion)
Describe physical properties of ionic compounds. Difference in liquid and solid states. High melting and boiling pnts. Liquids conduct electricity, not solids. Solids form crystal lattices to maximize attractions and minimize repulsions.
Relationship between bond length and bond strength in covalent bonds. Increased bond length decreases bond strength.
What determines whether a covalent bond is polar or nonpolar? Polar covalent bonding occurse btw atoms w/small diffs in electroneg. Nonpolar if same electroneg.
Difference btw compound and molecule. Compound is made of two or more elements in a fixed proportion. A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound that displays properties of that compound, a combo of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
What is molecular weight? The sum of the weights of the atoms that make up a molecule.
Name the 4 general categories of chemical reactions and a specific type of one of them. Combination, Decomposition, Single Displacement, and Double Displacement (Metathesis) Reactions. Neutralization reaction is a type of Metathesis where acid+base=salt+water.
What is the law of conservation of mass? In a reaction? The mass of the reactants must be equal to the mass of the products. Number of atoms must be equal on either side of equation in reaction.
Property of O2. Molecular oxygen is a reactant in combustion reactions.
What happens when H2 is ignited in air? Burns with a blue flame.
Why is nitrogen significant? N2 makes up a bit less than 80% by volume of air and is relatively inert.
Reactions involving CO2 and water. CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 (slightly acidic), CO2 + Ca(OH)2 (limewater) = CaCO3 (calcium carbonate) + H20, CaCO3 + H20+ CO2 = Ca2 + (aq) + 2HCO3=(aq) (dissolved calcium carbonate)
What is the kinetic molecular theory of gases and who were two of the guys that developed it? Ludwig Boltzmann + James Clerk Maxwell.1)Particle volume negligible compared to the container v.2)no intermolecular attractions or repulsions.3)Always randomly moving and colliding.4)Collisions r elastic. 5)Kinetic E:absolute T (all gases same)
What causes gas to become liquid or solid? Attractive forces btw molecules > random thermal kinetic energy of gas phase
General properties of liquids. Particles held close together, so have definite volumes and cannot easily be expanded or compressed. Move around in relative disorder, so can change shape to fit container. Can mix.
Miscibility The degree to which two liquids can mix.
General properties of solids. Strong attractive forces at atomic and molecular level hold them together rigidly. Kinetic energy is primarily vibrational, so they have definite shapes and volumes.
What is evaporation/vaporization? When the kinetic energy of molecules at the surface of a liquid is high enough to change it to a gas, lowering the average kinetic energy of the remaining liquid (cooling it).
What is condensation? Gas is forced back into the liquid phase.
What is vapor pressure? The pressure the gas exerts when the liquid and gas phases are at equilibrium.
What happens to vapor pressure as temperature increases? Vapor pressure increases because more molecules will become gas.
What is boiling point? The temp at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the external pressure.
How does a solid melt? There is enough energy (usually heat) to increase vibrations enough to break down the solid's 3D structure to a liquid.
What is it called when a solid transitions directly into a gas? Visa versa? Sublimation. Deposition.
What is a solution? A solute dissolved into a solvent to form a homogeneous mixture.
What are the two substances called if they are already in the same phase before becoming a solution? Solvent is the component present in a larger quantity.
Solvation or dissolution. The interaction between solute and solvent molecules.
Hydration. When a solute interacts with the solvent water.
Aqueous solution. Solution with water as the solvent.
Solubility The solubility of a substance is the maximum amount of that substance that can be dissolved in a particular solvent at a particular temperature.
Percent Composition by Mass The % composition by mass of a solution is the mass of the solute divided by the mass of the solution , multiplied by 100.
Dilution A solution is diluted when solvent is added to a solution of high concentration to produce a solution of lower concentration.
Older definition of acids and bases. Svante Arrhenius twd end of 19th century: Acid produces H+ (protons) in an aqueous solution. Base produces OH- (hydroxide ions) in an aqueous solution.
2 newer, more general definitions of acids and bases. Bronsted and Lowry 1923: Acid donates protons and base accepts protons. Lewis 1923ish: Acid is an electron-pair acceptor. Base is an electron-pair donor.
pH versus pOH. pH (proton concentration) and pOH ( hydrogen ion concentration)(H+) both equal 7 in water (if equal, is neutral). A pH below 7 indicates a higher pOH or H+ ions/acid. A pH above 7 indicates a relative excess of OH- ions/ basic.
Parent versus daughter isotope. Reactant versus product.
Describe alpha decay. The emission of an alpha particle, which is a 4He nucleus (2protons, 2 neutrons). Massive and doubly charged. Interacts easily, so doesn't penetrate shielding very far.
Describe beta decay. The emission of a beta (ß) particle, which resemble electrons, but are products of decay emitted by the nucleus (such as from a neutron decaying into a proton and an electron). Can penetrate because it is singly charged and has a small mass.
Describe gamma decay. The emission of gamma rays, which are high-energy photons. No charge and simply lower the energy of the parent nucleus without changing the mass number (A) or atomic number (Z).
What is a hydrocarbon? What determines a hydrocarbons classification? Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Depending on the kinds of bonds between the carbon atoms (only single between C and H), hydrocarbons are either alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, or aromatics.
meth- one, methane, CH4
eth- two, ethane, C2H6
prop- three, propane, C3H8
but- four, butane, C4H10
pent- five, pentane, C5H12
hex- six, hexane, C6H14
Alkane Hydrocarbon with single bonds between carbons (prefix-ane)
Alkenes Hydrocarbons with double bonds between carbons (prefix-ene)
Alkynes Hydrocarbons with triple carbon bonds (prefix-yne)
Aromatics Certain unsaturated cyclic (planar) hydrocarbons with a higher degree of stability than expected.
Examples of organic compounds containing C, H, and O. alcohols, ethers, carbohydrates, and carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones, esters, and carboxylic acids).
Important nitrogen-containing organic compound group. Amine group, -NH2, which is found in amino acids, the basic building blocks of proteins.
Created by: 741879016