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Chemistry QII:QII

Oxygen, Hydrogen, Water

most abundant element on earth oxygen
oxygen is _____ percent the volume of atmospheric air 21%
oxygen is _____ percent the mass of water 89%
means "acid former" oxygen
how many valence electrons does oxygen have? 6
what is oxygen's oxidation number? -2
3 words to describe oxygen: colorless, odorless, tasteless
T/F: Oxygen is lighter than air. False. Oxygen is heavier than air.
Is oxygen soluble in water? slightly
What can liquefy and solidify oxygen? (2 things) Extreme pressure and Low temperature
oxygen will react with other substances very rapidly at what temperatures? high temperatures
oxygen reacts with metallic and nonmetallic elements to form _____ oxides
what process does oxygen support, helping other things burn? combustion
considered a ______ agent oxidizing
Define Oxidation (4 ways) 1) addition of oxygen to a substance, 2) the removal of hydrogen from a substance, 3) the removal of electrons from a substance, 4) the increase in oxidation number of a substance
reduction is the _____ of oxidation opposite
Define Reduction (4 ways) 1) removal of oxygen from a substance, 2) addition of hydrogen to a substance, 3) addition of electrons to a substance, 4) the decrease in oxidation number of a substance
the substance reduced in an oxidation-reduction reaction is called the _____ agent oxidizing
the simplest form of an oxidizing agent is oxygen
the substance oxidized in an oxidation-reduction reaction is called the _______ agent reducing
the simplest form of a reducing agent is hydrogen
when an element exists in two or more different forms, each with its own physical and chemical properties allotropic
Three Allotropic forms of oxygen O (nascent oxygen), O2 (molecular oxygen), O3 (ozone)
the most abundant element in the universe hydrogen
T/F: there is a lot of free hydrogen in the atmosphere false, there is very little free hydrogen in the atmosphere
atomic mass of one atom of hydrogen 1 amu
oxidation # for hydrogen +1
T/F: hydrogen is lighter than air true
is hydrogen soluble in water? slightly
hydrogen burns with a _____, _____ flame, forming _____ hot, blue, water
does hydrogen support combustion? no
hydrogen acts as a ______ agent reducing
means "water producer" hydrogen
the most abundant compound water
water covers _____ percent of the earth's surface 75%
water is considered a _____ molecule, where ____ atoms of hydrogen are bonded to ____ atom of oxygen, forming a bond angle of _____ degrees bent, 2 hydrogen, one oxygen, angle of 105 degrees
how are H and O bonded? covalent
molecular mass of water 18 amu
water freezes at 0 degrees C
water boils at 100 degrees C
heat of vaporization for water 540 calories/gram
heat of fusion for water 80 calories/gram
specific heat of water 1 calorie/gram per degree C
is water a good solvent for many substances? yes
an intermolecular attractive force between a hydrogen atom on one water molecule to an oxygen atom on another molecule hydrogen bonding
the force that causes the surface of a liquid to contract surface tension
surface tension is important to embalming because it occurs at interfaces of _____ and _______, which interferes with _____ of embalming chemicals from the capillaries to the tissues solutions and cell membranes, interferes with the diffusion of embalming chemicals
to alleviate the problem of surface tension in embalming, what is introduced to most embalming fluids: (3 names) surfactants, wetting agents, surface active agents
is water stable? yes
water reacts with the alkali metals to liberate _____ hydrogen
water reacts with metallic oxides to form ____ bases
water reacts with nonmetallic oxides to form _____ acids
water that contains certain minerals in solution that destroy the cleansing action of soap hard water
three minerals which contribute to water hardness calcium, magnesium, and iron (II)
water hardness that can be removed by boiling and filtration temporary hardness
water hardness due to the presence of bicarbonate salts of Ca and Mg temporary hardness
water hardness caused by the chloride and sulfate salts of Ca and Mg permanent hardness
water hardness that can be removed by chemical treatment and filtration permanent hardness
presence of _____ calcium in the blood is very important in the blood-clotting process ionized
hard water should be avoided to dilute embalming fluid because it will cause blood clotting
to reduce effect of hard water on embalming, what are added (2 names) water-conditioning agents, anticoagulants
Created by: amyziolkowski