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Solution Chemistry

solutions

QuestionAnswer
Solute substance dissolved in a solution.
Solvent the dissolving medium in a solution.
Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase.
Aqueous the term describes a system in which it involves water; also it applies to a solution or mixture in which water is the solvent.
Freezing Point depression phenomenon that occurs when the freezing point of a liquid is lowered by adding another compound to it, such that the solution has a lower freezing point than the pure solvent.
Boiling Point elevation occurs when the boiling point of a liquid is increased when another compound is added, such that the solution has a higher boiling point than the pure solvent. Boiling point elevation occurs whenever a non-volatile solute is added to a pure solvent.
Saturated when a solution contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
Unsaturated when a solution contains less solute than a saturated solution under the existing conditions
Supersaturated when a solution contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains under the same conditions
Distillation the technique of heating a liquid to create vapor which is collected when cooled separate from the original liquid
Filtering allowing certain objects or substances through while blocking others usually by using a membrane or layer.
Chromatography the separation of chemicals through a set of laboratory techniques.
Solubility the amount of a substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of a solvent at a specified temperature.
Mixture a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains it's own identity and properties.
Homogeneous having a uniform composition throughout.
Heterogeneous not having a uniform composition throughout.
Suspension a mixture in which the particles in the solvent are so large that they settle out unless the mixture is constantly stirred or agitated.
Colloid a mixture consisting of particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions forming mixtures known as colloid dispersions.
Disassociation the seperation of ions that occurs when anionic compound dissolves
Electrolyte a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current.
Nonelectrolyte a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electric current.
Precipitate a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution and that separates from the solution.
Ionic equation an equation which only shows the atoms and ions that actually take part in the reaction.
Molecular equation equation for a chemical reaction where all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules; only complete formulas are used.
Spectator ion an ion that does not take part in a chemical reaction and is found in solution both before and after the reaction.
Acid aqueous solution that has a sour taste, the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts, and the ability to turn blue litmus red.
Base substance which gives off hydroxide ions in solution.
Neutralization the reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules.
Oxidation a reaction in which the atoms or ions of an element experience an increase in oxidation state.
Reduction a reaction in which the oxidation state of an element decreases.
Molarity the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution.
Molality the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
Dilution process of reducing the concentration of a solute in a solution; usually by just adding more solvent.
Titration when one solution is added to another solution and it reacts under conditions in which the sum of the volume of may be measured accurately.
Concentration a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solutions.
Created by: juangnzlz