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JH Chem Vocab

Chemistry vocabulary

Solute A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
Solvent The component of a solution that is present in the greatest amount. It is the substance in which the solute is dissolved.
Solution A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. A solution may exist in any phase.
Aqueous applied to a solution or mixture in which water is the solvent. When a chemical species has been dissolved in water, this is denoted by writing (aq) after the chemical name.
Freezing Point depression the phenomenon that occurs when the freezing point of a liquid (a solvent) is lowered by adding another compound to it, such that the solution has a lower freezing point than the pure solvent.
Boiling Point elevation occurs when the boiling point of a solvent is increased when another compound is added, such that the solution has a higher boiling point than the pure solvent. Boiling point elevation occurs whenever a non-volatile solute is added to a pure solvent.
Saturated saturated refers to a point of maximum concentration, in which no more solute may be dissolved in a solvent.
Unsaturated being able to dissolve more solute.
Supersaturated the condition in which a liquid has been cooled to a temperature below that at which crystallization normally would occur, without the solid resulting.
Distillation the technique of heating a liquid to create vapor which is collected when cooled separate from the original liquid.
Filtering To pass a liquid or gas through a filter.
Chromatography a process used for separating mixtures by virtue of differences in absorbency
Solubility the maximum quantity of a substance that may be dissolved in another.
Mixture two or more substances which have been combined such that each substance retains its own chemical identity.
Homogeneous refers to a substance that is consistent or uniform throughout its volume.
Heterogeneous Having a non-uniform composition
Suspension a mixture in which fine particles are suspended in a fluid where they are supported by buoyancy
Colloid type of homogeneous mixture in which the dispersed particles do not settle out.
Dissociation the separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves
Electrolyte substance which forms ions in an aqueous solution.
Nonelectrolyte substance that does exist in an ionic form in aqueous solution.
Precipitate separate as a fine suspension of solid particles
Ionic equation An equation that represents all reactants and products that break down into ions in water as their ions.
Molecular equation An equation that represents the reactants and products as if they are intact, undissolved compounds
Spectator ion an ion that appears as both a reactant and a product in an ionic equation
Acid a chemical species that donates protons or hydrogen ions and/or accepts electrons.
Base a chemical species that donates electrons or hydroxide ions or that accepts protons.
Neutralization Reaction between an acid and a base which produces a neutral solution
Oxidation the process of oxidizing; the addition of oxygen to a compound with a loss of electrons
Reduction half-reaction in which a chemical species decreases its oxidation number, usually by gaining electrons.
Molarity the number of moles of solute divided by the number of liters of solution.
Molality equal to the number of moles of solute divided by the number of kilograms of solvent.
Dilution reducing the concentration by the addition of water or a thinner
Titration when one solution is added to another such that it reacts under conditions in which the added volume may be accurately measured.
Concentration the strength of a solution
Created by: jessch



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