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Chapter 9 Vocabulary

Solute The substance dissolved in a liquid.
Solvent The dissolving medium in a solution.
Solution A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase.
Aqueous Something made up of water.
Freezing Point depression The difference between the freezing points of a pure solvent and a solution of a nonelectrolyte in that solvent; is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution.
Boiling Point elevation The difference between the boiling point of a pure solvent and a nonelectrolyte of that solvent, directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution.
Saturated A solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
Unsaturated A solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under the existing conditions.
Supersaturated A solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains under the same conditions.
Distillation The act of purifying liquids through boiling, so that the gaseous vapors or steam condense to a pure liquid.
Filtering To break a solution into a purer substance by retracting unwanted molecules.
Chromatography Process used for separating mixtures by virtue of differences in absorbency.
Solubility The amount of a substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature.
Mixture A blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties.
Homogeneous Having a uniform composition throughout.
Heterogeneous Not having a uniform composition throughout.
Suspension A mixture in which the particles in the solvent are so large that they settle out unless the mixture is constantly stirred or agitated.
Colloid A mixture consisting of particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions forming mixtures known as colloid dispersions.
Disassociation The separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves.
Electrolyte A substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current.
Nonelectrolyte A substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electric current.
Precipitate A solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution and that separates from the solution.
Ionic equation A chemical equation in which electrolytes are written as disassociated ions.
Molecular equation Symbolic representation of a chemical reaction.
Spectator ion An ion that does not take part in a chemical reaction and is found in solution both before and after the reaction.
Acid Compound that gives of H+ ions in solution.
Base Substance which gives off hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution.
Neutralization A reaction between acid and base which neutralizes both and results in the formation of water plus a salt.
Oxidation The loss of electrons.
Reduction The gain of electrons by a compound or ion.
Molarity The number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
Molality The number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Dilution Reducing the concentration of a solution by adding solvent.
Titration Reacting a solution of unknown concentration with a solution of a known concentration for the purpose of finding out more about the unknown concentration.
Concentration The amount of solute in a solution.
Created by: Gilesm