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Semester Exam Review

Topics, vocab and stuff to know for the exam

Aufbau Principle the rule that electrons must occupy orbitals of lowest energy first
Pauli Exclusion Principle an atomic orbital can hold only 2 electrons and they must have opposite spins
Hund's Rule electrons must fill one in each orbital before they pair up
Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the elements in a table by increasing atomic mass and in columns by oxygen combination
John Newlands put elements in a pattern in which every 8th element repeated a characteristic
Lothar Meyer was working on a periodic table of elements but he was unsuccessful because he couldn't explain how it could be used
J.W. Dobereiner placed elements into groups of three by similar characteristics
Henry Moseley assigned every element an atomic number that allowed for the modern arrangement of the periodic table
Glenn Seaborg placed the inner transitionals at the bottom of the table
Democritus named the atom from the word "atomos"
J.J. Thomson discovered the electron using a cathode ray tube
J.J. Thomson had the original idea of how the electrons were placed in the atom similar to raisins in pudding
Ernest Rutherford discovered that the atom had a central core that was relatively small in volume but large in mass called the nucleus
Ernest Rutherford used gold foil and alpha particles in his famous discovery
James Chadwick discovered the neutron
John Dalton formulated the atomic theory with originally 4 parts that later 2 were disproved
indivisible and identical the two parts of the original atomic theory that were rejected with the discovery of subatomic particles
isotopes different forms of the same element that have different number of neutrons
oxidation number the "charge" that an atom aquires when it looses or gains electrons
chemical label color blue used for health precautions
chemical label color red used for flammability precautions
chemical label color yellow used for reactivity precautions
MSDS material safety data sheets; required for every chemical on hand in a lab
Goggles must be worn in these 3 circumstances using heat, chemicals or glassware
period a horizontal row on the periodic table; there are 7
group/family a vertical column on the periodic table; there are 18
halogens special name of group 17
noble gases special name of group 18
alkali earth metals special name of group 2
alkali metals special name of group 1
radioactive elements have their mass in parenthesis
synthetic elements all elements past Uranium and Tc
inner transitional elements also called Rare Earth Elements
Lanthanides elements with atomic numbers 57-71
Actinides elements with atomic numbers 89-103
representative elements elements with electrons in the S or P energy levels; also called the "main group" elements
metalloids these elements border the "stair-step"; there are 8 of them
elements that are liquid at room temperature Bromine and Mercury
number of elements that are gases at room temperature eleven
solution another name for a homogeneous mixture
homogeneous mixture physically combined matter that has consistent composition
heterogeneous mixture physically combined matter that does not have consistent composition
accuracy this is a measure of how "close" a measurement is to the actual value
precision this is a measure of how "consistent" measurements are with each other
Niels Bohr had the idea that electrons moved in fixed paths or orbits
s sublevel holds how many electrons and has how many orbitals 2/1
p sublevel holds how many electrons and has how many orbitals 6/3
d sublevel holds how many electrons and has how many orbitals 10/5
f sublevel holds how many electrons and has how many orbitals 14/7
valence the "outer" or highest occupied energy level
electronegativity how well an element attracts electrons to itself
ionization energy the energy needed to make an element lose an electron
atomic radius half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined
ion charged form of an atom of an element with less or more electrons than neutral
highest occupied energy level equal to the period of the element
Avogadro's number equal to a mole of representative particles; 6.02 x 10 23
mole equal to Avogadro's number of representative particles
Created by: schraders