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concepts of energy

chapter four concepts: energy, fuel, combustion

First Law of Thermodynamics conservation of energy and mass, energy is neither created nor destroyed
heat energy that flows from hotter to colder object
temperature property that determines the direction of heat flow
combustion combination of fuel and oxygen to form products
exothermic reaction term applied to any chemical or physical change accopanied by the the release of heat.
Calorimeter measures quantity of heat energy releaswed in a combustion reaction. ex: burning coal
Endothermic reaction any chemical or physical change that absorbs energy. ex: melting ice
activation energy energy necessary to initiate a reaction
Tetraethyl lead substitues 1) Ethanol 2) MTBE
Entropy randomness in position or energy level (going from order to disorder) Increase in entropy: exothermic. Decrease in entropy: endothermic
second law of thermodynamics energy is lost through heat
Oil - refining process crude oil (petroleum) refining process: crude oil separeted into fractions that consist of compounds with similar properties.
Distillation a purification, or separation, process in which a solution is heated to its boiling point and the vapors are condensed and collected.
isomers compounds with the same chemical formula but different chemical structure. ex. octane and isooctane
Cracking chemical process by which large moclecules are broken into smaller ones suitable to be used in gasoline
thermal cracking achieved by heating the starting materials to a high temperature
catalytic cracking catalysts are used to promote molecular breakdown at lower temperatures
oxygenated gasolines blends of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons with oxygen-containing compounds such as MTBE, ethanol or methanol
Reformulated Gasolines oxygenated gasolines that also contain a lower percentage of certain more volatile hydrocarbons such a benzene found in nonoxygenated conventional gasoline
biomass materials produced by biological processes
refinery gases Most volatile components of the fractionating tower boil far below room temperature
hydrocarbons molecules consisting of only hydrogen and carbon atoms
Alkanes hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbons
bond energy the amount of energy that must be absorbed to break a specific chemical bond
heat of combustion quantity ofr heat energy given off when a specified amount of a substance burns in oxygen
thermal energy random motion of molecules
potential and kinetic energy potential: form of energy related to positions of atoms and molecular structure and stored in chemical bonds. kinetic: energy in motion
calorie amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of exactly one gram of water by one degree Celsius. 4.184 J
work done when movement occurs against a restraining force. Work is equal to force multiplied by distance over which motion occurs
Created by: curryab