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Chemistry Chapter 5

Quantum Numbers, Notations and Rules

de Broglie suggested that particles of matter have the properties of waves and vice versa
E=hν + E=mc^2 hν=mc^2
c=λν or ν=c/λ or λ =c/ν hc/λ =mc^2
de Broglie mathematically proved that a stream of electrons acts the same as waves of light
wave-particle duality of nature refers to the two-sided nature of particles and waves
We know that light travels at 3×10^8 m/sec in a vacuum
index of refraction specific to a substance, is calculated by the bending of a light ray passing from a vacuum into a new substance
Momentum (p) mass ×velocity and tells us where an object is going
Heisenberg studied the position of an object (where it is) and the momentum of an object (where it is going)
Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle you can’t ever know the exact position or momentum of a moving object (electron) in any given instant
Erwin Schrödinger developed the theory Quantum Mechanics, which studies the behavior of very small objects at velocities near or at the speed of light
Newtonian Mechanics studies the behavior of visible objects at ordinary velocities
1. Primary Quantum Number symbol: n
1. Primary Quantum Number • This number is the main energy level occupied by the electron and indicates the size of the electron cloud
1. Primary Quantum Number • Values of n range from 1-7, with n=1 being that energy level closest to nucleus
1. Primary Quantum Number • As n increases, the energy of the electron increases, as does the distance from the nucleus
2. Second Quantum Number symbol: ℓ
2. Second Quantum Number • This number indicates the sublevel and the shape of the orbital
2. Second Quantum Number • The number of sublevels in an energy level=n; sublevels are indicated by the specific levels= s, p, d, f
2. Second Quantum Number • Except in n= 1, sublevels of different shapes exist in the same energy level
3. Third Quantum Number symbol: m
3. Third Quantum Number • The number indicates the orbital and the spatial orientation of the orbital in a sublevel
3. Third Quantum Number • An orbital is an area in a sublevel that can hold 2 electrons
3. Third Quantum Number • The sublevel s has 1 orbital, p has 3, d has 5, and f has 7
4. Fourth Quantum Number symbol: s
4. Fourth Quantum Number • This indicates the spin states of electrons in an orbital
4. Fourth Quantum Number • Values for spin is either +1/2 or -1/2
4. Fourth Quantum Number • A single orbital holds a maximum of 2 electrons- each has an opposite spin- this explains how two negative charges can be in proximity of one another
Aufbau Principle electrons occupy the lowest energy level that can receive it
Pauli Exclusion Principle no 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers
Hund’s Rule orbital of equal energy are each occupied by 1 electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron- also, all electrons in singly-occupied orbital must have the same spin
Diagonal Rule after 18 electrons have been assigned to their orbital, the normal filling under Rule #1 does not apply
1. electron configuration notation Au- 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d9
orbital notation 1s ↑↓
electron dot diagram • for every electron in the highest energy level, place a dot around the symbol, with the s electrons on the right, and all else on top, bottom, and left
noble gas notation carbon [He]2s22p2
noble gas notation • write the symbol for the noble gas which precedes the element in brackets and then add the additional electrons in the electron configuration notation
Created by: abbys1509